Analyzing wallace s sayre model-ENAP - Escola Nacional de Administração Pública - Offline

To browse Academia. Skip to main content. You're using an out-of-date version of Internet Explorer. Log In Sign Up. Given its environmental, eco- nomic and social consequences, this paper analyzes whether public opinion towards climate change at the state level has translated into environmental regulations, and if so, whether these regulations have had an impact on factors contributing towards global warming.

Analyzing wallace s sayre model

Analyzing wallace s sayre model

Multivariate OLS models are estimated at the state level in order to explore the Analtzing of public opinion on the enactment of environmental regulations and jodel, of policy Analyzing wallace s sayre model opinion on Mom caught son with tampon and emissions. While the policy measure Column 1coded renewable standard appears to be positively and significantly associated at the bivariate and multivariate level Column 5the coefficient is smaller than expected. Strategic planning. Modeling meiotic chromosome pairing: a tug of war between telomere forces and a pairing-based Brownian ratchet leads to increased pairing fidelity. Competent assistants are mandatory; without them the Executive Branch would bog down. Avasthi P, Aalyzing WF. InLos Angeles St. A very good measure of efficiency, as we all know, is profit. And there would be further decisions every 30 days.

Share personel porn. Description:

Rouse Jr. Mode 1 appears to be associated with the mesoscale eddy traveling around the Loop Current crest and trough, and Bare yoga poses galleries 2 is associated with the intrusion of Loop Current crest and trough over the Analyzing wallace s sayre model Florida shelf. Public Policy. I invite wallac who has further suggestions of items to be included or comments on the article itself to email me at the address given below. However, QI has found no substantive linkage to Dorothy Parker. Humor moxel be dissected, as a frog can, but the thing dies in the process and the innards are discouraging to any but the purely scientific mind. Drowning with Others. Search for articles by this author. On the other hand, despite circumstantial evidence, direct verification of Analyzinb eddy-induced shelf currents is difficult. Screen Reader Supported. Bretherton, F. Parenting styles was included as part of multiculturalism because a parenting style is like a habit, and many people define Analyzing wallace s sayre model habit as a culture. Would you please explore the provenance of this statement?

Author s : Wallace S.

  • Analysis has always been at the heart of philosophical method, but it has been understood and practised in many different ways.
  • Skip to main content.
  • Paper Paper.

Political scientists, legislators, educators, business executives, lawyers, consumerists—practically everyone, it sometimes seems—is calling for better public management. For businessmen, the need is especially important because they feel surrounded by government institutions with which they are legally required to interact. But enthusiasm for good government is one thing; understanding the nature of it, to say nothing […].

But enthusiasm for good government is one thing; understanding the nature of it, to say nothing of achieving it, is another. Often we seem to assume that effective management in the public sector has the same basic qualities as effective management in the private sector. Yet, several years after Watergate, Americans are still chafing at the acts of a president who claimed to have taken considerable care to keep his office businesslike.

To him, that meant no leaks, absolute loyalty to the organization, tight hierarchy in structure and operations, and a single coordinated voice in relations with other organizations and the public. Some observers have taken the consequences of the Nixon White House to be evidence not merely of the personal failure involved but also of the inherent weakness of applying a business model to government activity.

If indeed good business management is qualitatively different from good government management, we need to rethink some of our expectations of public servants as well as many common notions of managerial performance and training in government. As both individuals and agents of their companies, business people should operate under no illusions about there being similarities between their work and the tasks of public administrators.

To compare management in the two sectors, let us begin with a common definition and an example that businessmen will readily recognize. As Chester I.

A very good measure of efficiency, as we all know, is profit. The fact that the first thing we expect business managers to do is manage profitably colors our expectations of them—of what they do as well as of how soon they do it.

For instance, it took IBM about ten years to conceive and build the series of computers. The effort began after Thomas Watson, Jr. The concept of the series was revolutionary. It meant formulating a new corporate strategy. From to , IBM did just what a well-managed corporation is supposed to do.

It achieved its purpose—gaining leadership in the industry. There fore, it met the test of effectiveness. In addition, during that decade its executives, other employees, and shareholders profited. Therefore, it met the test of efficiency. Having managed to meet both tests, management was above challenge for its choice of a new strategy and the time required to carry out the strategy. The IBM example typifies our expectations of business in general. But what of management in the public sector?

The late Professor Wallace S. But when we get to the content of those words, the similarity ends. Like a business, a public organization is expected to serve society.

But without a market to determine effectiveness, the process of measuring becomes diffuse and complex. Moreover, if the executives of an effective public organization distribute the surplus resources they control that is, the excess of revenues over expenditures among the executives whose skills produce the surplus, the officials are put in jail when apprehended.

What does purpose mean in the public sector? As in the private sector, the administrative motive is self-interest, but the stated organizational motive is not. The neat relationship between the external view of an organization in terms of its accomplishments and the internal view of administrative arrangements is shattered. Though it may motivate administrative success, self-interest is considered venal. Moreover, the chief executive in a public organization may have no presumptive right to set purpose; it may be given by legislation.

Still more difficult to cope with is the fact that the changes in formal organization and systems that are the principal sources of managerial influence in large corporations are only marginally available to the public executive and can only be used at considerable political cost. The structure of public agencies is usually dictated by legislation. Furthermore, the selection and compensation of people, an important business tool, is almost universally controlled by a civil service system.

However management in the public sector is defined and delineated, it differs from corporate management in several important ways. Public sector managers frequently must:. Let us examine some realities of public management and see how important these differences can be. To begin, consider the contrast in behavior of public and private executives on assuming office.

The private manager is usually promoted from within the organization. Doing so is customarily his first move.

Almost without exception, he makes changes among the key people reporting to him and modifies their jobs. In contrast, one can describe public officials as outsiders who enter office with cherished policy objectives, accomplish little, and leave office with unfulfilled desires for structural reform; for, in order to accomplish important political objectives having to do with due process and responsiveness to the electorate, the United States has very nearly denied the public executive the tools of management.

How, then, can the public manager accomplish his or her ends? Since this share cannot include the profits of government, he usually seeks such goals as salary, the perquisites of office, and the intangible rewards of serving the public.

The intangible rewards may be ephemeral or real, but ideologically they are as important in the public sector as the profit motive is in business. The intangibles include influencing policy, changing the direction of events, and helping others. Common to all of them is the pleasure of exercising power usefully.

Power is a necessary element of effectiveness and a reward for efficiency. Thought of as the ability to influence outcomes, power has both short-term and long-term dimensions. This prospect will be the result of increased respect for his personal capability or of his participation in important coalitions.

But how does he get things done when the usual sources of managerial influence in the private sector are not available? Part of the answer is illustrated by the comments of Gordon Chase, the widely respected former administrator of the New York City Health Service Administration.

Reflecting on his approach to that task, Chase said:. Some of them I could have a large impact on; others I could not change. One characteristic of these types of problems is that they have usually been ignored by the health establishment.

One of my first objectives was to fix that deficiency or begin to fix it, and in fixing it, to drag in by some means the health establishment. Eventually, that was done through the contract mechanism. One was our conscious decision to try to involve the whole medical establishment. While roughly one-third of all the health services in New York are delivered by the public sector, the largest part is still provided by the voluntary hospitals or private sector.

Involving the voluntary sector also gave me a basis to measure the performance of the municipal sector with. When we started the methadone program, we wanted to get under way very fast. It was clear to me that if we had run it as a city operation, it would have been impossibly slow to set up.

We would have to go to the Bureau of the Budget and the Department of Purchasing for everything. We would run into problems like not being able to pay doctors enough to do the job. We would encounter the usual incredible amount of red tape. There was a bad distribution of hospitals and doctors. I could do something about this problem but not much. They affected enormous numbers of people, directly and indirectly, but the medical establishment in the past had often ignored them.

These inefficiencies affected mostly poor people. This was the whole problem of rising health care costs. The system for delivering health care in New York City had the wrong goals, functioned irrationally and inefficiently, and was becoming very costly. But the problem on which Chase had to operate lay substantially beyond the boundaries of his agency, large as it was. The time horizon of the public administrator is far shorter than that of the traditional corporate manager.

IBM had about a decade to establish the computer series, as we saw earlier. In , George Romney, then president of American Motors, admitted that it had taken him seven years working within his company and seven years selling in the market to make the idea of a Detroit-made compact car acceptable.

Fourteen years! In retrospect, we see that even more time was needed. Why so little time for such complex tasks? Our system of appointed administrators gives the chief executive responsibility in operating agencies to men and women whose tenure is tied to the elected executive who appointed them. We will come back to Chase later. Now let us consider the reflections of another former government executive. William Ruckelshaus, appointed the first head of the U. Environmental Protection Agency EPA in November , began his administration as Chase did, talking to a great many people and trying to get a sense of direction.

Similarly, he found many of the operations inappropriately focused. In an interview, he spoke sharply of the importance of his time horizon:. There was going to come a time—if you read the Clean Air Act, this was in January , right after it passed—that [the auto companies] were going to come ask me for some more time [to comply with the emission standards].

That was immediately clear to me. Otherwise, there would be no way, two years hence or whenever they asked for an extension of time, that I could conceivably make a judgment that they had made this good faith effort. So, we had to figure out how we were going to convince them that we were serious.

Every 30 days we had deadlines to meet involving very complicated matters on the Clean Air Act. In other words, 60 days after taking office, Ruckelshaus had to take steps that would influence the behavior of the entire U. And there would be further decisions every 30 days. Ruckelshaus pointed out that his goals were complicated by legislative and other acts. There had been a lot of work done on that.

Who We Were Before. When QI communicated with debihope she indicated that she was the originator of the expression, and she provided the following insight to its formulation: 2. A Statewide Indicator for Drinking Water. The analysis yields daily maps of streamfunction, velocity potential, geopotential, and associated rotational, divergent, and geostrophic velocity fields. Before You Leave.

Analyzing wallace s sayre model

Analyzing wallace s sayre model. Acknowledgments

.

Effective Public Management

Author s : Wallace S. JSTOR is a not-for-profit service that helps scholars, researchers, and students discover, use, and build upon a wide range of content in a trusted digital archive. We use information technology and tools to increase productivity and facilitate new forms of scholarship. This content downloaded from A NEW managerial idea is taking hold in million or more, only one city-Cleveland-has the large cities of the United States.

In the last large city governments requires general man- decade perhaps even longer , no large city has agerial direction and that this requirement can given serious consideration to the adoption of best be met by establishing under the mayor a the council manager plan. The general manager tion: why has the plan failed to find support in plan thus builds upon the strong-mayor large cities?

In fact, the literature does not tell tradition as the most widespread form of city us much about the ecology of the council man- government in the United States. By marrying ager plan in adoptions and operations.

Why, the manager idea with the idea of the elected for example, are half of all the council man- chief executive, the general manager plan pre- ager cities to be found in six states California, serves the office of mayor as the center of politi- Florida, Maine, Michigan, Texas, and Vir- cal leadership and responsibility.

In large cities ginia? Does the council manager plan find ac- this center is widely regarded as indispensable ceptance primarily in particular social, eco- to effective government. Does it, for The general manager plan may be regarded example, find greatest acceptance and operate either as a competitor of the council manager most successfully in one-party or in "non- idea or as a more mature form of the manager partisan" constituencies?

Is the affinity be- idea, reflecting the judgment in the larger tween the council manager plan and small cities that the council manager plan represents and middle-sized cities the result of the plan's an unnecessary surrender of the values of suitability for the management of the particu- leadership and accountability found in the in- lar governmental problems to be found in stitution of the elected chief executive. The cities of such size? Is the council manager plan general manager or mayor manager plan, its particularly attractive to cities which are grow- proponents emphasize, captures the advan- ing rapidly in size or to those which are declin- tages of the council manager plan without the ing in population and resources?

To these risks of abandoning the elected chief executive. Cincinnati, the largest city using the plan, has Louisville, Newark, New Orleans, New a population of a half million. Science Review oo December, In two of city administrator, with Luther Gulick the others Chicago and Detroit proposals for first incumbent. And in September, , the such general managerial arrangements have staff report to the Chicago Charter Revision been made.

Commission recommended the adoption of the This new managerial trend in large cities general manager plan for that city. In interest and has led to official action in an im- fact, this new form of the manager idea in city pressive portion of the large cities. Why has government has not yet acquired a distinctive this happened?

Several explanations may be label. Some observers call it the mayor man- suggested: ager plan, to emphasize its contrast with the 1. The council manager plan had proved to council manager plan; others call it the mayor be unacceptable in large city environments, administrator plan; and still others name it but the values of the managerial idea were still the general manager plan.

The general manager idea for cities began sought in some more attractive structural form. The office of mayor-an elected chief ex- its governmental history in San Francisco in ecutive who is the center of energy and of pub- , when charter revision movement estab- lic leadership and the focus of responsibility lished the office of chief administrative officer.

The plan was not supremacy and a city manager as represented in the council manager plan. The mayor manager plan fits comfortably eral satisfaction of the electorate. In New and easily into the American political system: York City's new charter established the office of it preserves the elected chief executive; it keeps deputy mayor, an office which developed more the mayoralty as the focus of the party battle; as a center of legislative and political assistance it emphasizes the values of integration, hier- to the mayor than as a center of managerial aid.

In , Lent D. Upson proposed a gen- archy, and professional management, all made familiar doctrine by a half-century of adminis- eral manager under the mayor for the city of Detroit, but the proposal was not accepted.

In 2Accounts of these developments are scattered and , Louisville began a related experiment fragmentary. In addition to the charters of the several with the appointment of a city consultant-ad- cities, see Richard S. In , Los Angeles St. Levit, "San manager idea by establishing the office of man- Francisco's Unique Charter," 34 National Municipal aging director with substantial powers.

In the same year, Boston established a 1 Sept. Chute prepared a useful survey of these de- velopments, "Modern Ideas on Administrative Assist- adopted a new charter which established the ants for the Mayor in Large American Cities," for the office of business administrator under the Chicago Charter Revision Commission which will be mayor, the option under the New Jersey summarized in a forthcoming report of that commission.

The two extremes are municipal governments and by the doctrine of represented by Los Angeles, where the man- the council manager movement itself. There is some tendency to create a new THE idea of a general manager serving under and smaller cabinet institution under the the mayor has not been a pre-packaged solution developed as finished doctrine by mayor, consisting of the general manager and the heads of the "staff" agencies. This is par- municipal reformers.

Rather, its evolution has ticularly the case in Philadelphia and New been experimental, each application being York. The heads of the "line" agencies, when worked out in relation to local experience and they function as a cabinet as they do in Phila- governmental conditions, and varying with the delphia , do so in a meeting presided over by boldness or caution of local leadership.

There the manager. The general manager is increasingly variety as well as the trends in the de- THE made more clearly the managerial agent of the velopment of the general manager idea in mayor, "The mayor's man. York City, Philadelphia, and San Francisco. As the manager is made more responsible Title: In San Francisco and New Orleans to the mayor, he tends to be given more power the manager is called chief administrative offi- -to approach more nearly the status of second cer; in Los Angeles, city administrative officer; in administrative command.

In New Orleans in Philadelphia, managing director; in New and Philadelphia, the cities which represent York, city administrator. Only in Los ample, the power to appoint and remove the Angeles is council approval required. Orleans, and New York, no term is specified. There is a continued ambivalence in de- Philadelphia the term of the manager is four ciding whether the general manager's author- years, corresponding to the term of the mayor ity and responsibility should center upon the appointing him.

In Los In almost every instance the manager is Angeles, the mayor may remove the manager, given primary responsibility for administra- but the approval of the council is required. In tive planning and for other organization and Philadelphia the mayor must prefer charges; methods work. In Los Angeles and New the manager may appeal his removal to the Orleans he has responsibility for budget prep- Civil Service Commission which may award aration and execution; in Philadelphia and him compensation but may not restore him.

New York these activities are not under the In San Francisco the mayor may not remove; manager's jurisdiction. In no city does the the manager is subject to recall in an election, manager directly supervise the personnel or the legislative body may remove him by a agency.

In Los Angeles and New delphia the "line" agencies are the manager's Orleans the council may also remove the man-. To appoint and remove heads of agen- cies under the jurisdiction of the mayor" ex- cies: In Philadelphia, New Orleans, and San cept law, investigation, budget, the construc- Francisco, the managers appoint and remove tion coordinator, and boards, commissions the heads of specified city departments and which include personnel , and authorities. In San Francisco the manager does He may convene heads of agencies singly or col- not need the mayor's approval for such ap- lectively, procure information and reports, re- pointments or removals; in Philadelphia and quire the keeping of management records, con- New Orleans the mayor's approval is required.

The power to provide general advice and but two city departments law and civil serv- assistance to the mayor: In Philadelphia and ice ; in Philadelphia it includes all but finance, New York the manager is under a special obli- law, and personnel. In neither of these two gation to serve as general management adviser cities does the power to appoint and remove to the mayor.

In Philadelphia the managing include members of boards or commissions. In director is required to report periodically to San Francisco, the power extends to depart- the mayor concerning the affairs of the city ments specified by name in the charter; such government not merely the affairs of his own departments constitute about half of the city departments , and he is authorized to make agencies. In New the manager have the power to appoint or re- York the city administrator is required to "pre- move heads of departments.

To supervise city administrative opera- mayor shall require," and to "analyze and re- tions: In San Francisco the power of the man- port to the mayor concerning impending of ager to supervise is confined to the depart- policy decisions affecting the management ments specifically assigned to him by the the city and the agencies. In Los Angeles the manager's oppor- to "maintain liaison with civic and community tunities for supervision flow solely from his groups on matters of governmental manage- role as city budget officer.

In Philadelphia the ment. In each city there is a small top-level In New Orleans the manager has more gen- cabinet group meeting weekly with the mayor, eral supervisory authority. He supervises not in which the manager plays a central role. In these cities, the manager's role in this In San outside his appointing and removal authority , respect is implicit, if it exists at all. In New Orleans it would seem to be a nate the course of large city administrative re- logical and natural development.

In Los organizations for the next several years. The Angeles, it would appear to be a more confined council manager plan is not likely to break but possible development. The emergence of the mayor Mayor Manager Plan manager plan has breached the monopolistic HE invention and recent growth of the gen- claim of the council manager plan to the man- eral manager idea in large cities is a prod- agerial virtues by presenting the new and uct of many influences.

Some of these in- strong competition of an alternative manager fluences would seem to be of reasonably plan. Not only is the mayor manager plan likely The larger cities of the United States have to hold its own and to extend its scope to most developed complex administrative establish- of the largest cities, but it is also probable that ments which require strengthened central it will become an attractive solution for many managerial leadership, direction, and coordi- perhaps most of the one hundred and five nation.

These cities have also, almost without cities with loo,ooo population or more. In con- exception, developed an increasing reliance trast with the council manager plan, the mayor upon the elected chief executive-a mayor with manager plan is elastic in its formal arrange- extensive powers to appoint, to remove, and to ments, and it can thus respond more easily to direct the heads of administrative agencies- local priorities, customs, and personalities.

To as the main institution of governmental leader- the strong mayor cities, it offers an evolution- ship and accountability. The electoral contest ary transition, buttressing rather than discard- for this office has become the primary instru- ing the values which have been built up ment of popular control of the city govern- around the leadership of the elected chief ex- ment and the main occasion for public educa- ecutive.

To these cities, the mayor manager tion and participation in city affairs. The office plan offers the same managerial gains as does of mayor in large cities has, in addition, be- the council manager plan, but at much less come more important as a prize in the party risk.

The strategic and tactical advantages of battle, its possession one of the significant keys such an offer in the political world can hardly to state and even national party power.

It be exaggerated. The plan may ultimately in large cities has come to stay, then it would acquire its own protective guild of practition- also seem that such mayors, no less than the ers and advocates, transforming it into an in- President, need managerial help. The mayor elastic plan unresponsive to the changing manager idea is a response to this felt need in needs of the cities.

It may be drowned in a few the large cities. In this sense, the mayor man- dramatic "failures. Philadelphia and of their counterparts in the states, has been to New Orleans have made the clearest and strengthen the position of the elected chief ex- strongest effort to insure this result.

The Dev- ecutive in his political and administrative ereux Josephs Commission, in the most com- leadership. Four Steps to Better Government of New rather than a solution for the mayor manager York City, , proposed still greater advocates. The trend in mayor manager cities strength for the manager while making him is not yet clear, but the general manager in a also more clearly the mayor's administrative large city seems at this stage no more likely to agent. The range of variation in managerial become a career manager in that city than has power is wide among the cities using the mayor the city manager in his.

The trend in official action and Some observers profess to see in the mayor civic opinion-particularly on the manager's manager plan merely a compromise step to- appointing power-is not conclusive, but it ward the council manager plan.

The reverse seems to run toward the grant of greater man- would seem to be the more likely development, agerial leverage. The essen- The mayor manager plan will also encoun- tial ingredient of the mayor manager plan is ter, perhaps early in its development, the poli- the appointment and removal of the manager tics-administration dilemma which increas- by the mayor as the elected chief executive. Can the general manager be at once cil manager plan-the selection of the chief ad- both a professional administrator and the ministrator by the city council-was not only mayor's second in administrative command?

Analyzing wallace s sayre model

Analyzing wallace s sayre model