Nazi twin studies-The victims of unethical human experiments and coerced research under National Socialism

Before arriving at the death camp, she had been stuffed into a train car on a seemingly endless journey from Hungary. Now, she and her twin sister Miriam pressed close as Nazi guards shouted orders in German. Suddenly, an SS guard stopped in front of the identical girls. The SS guard grabbed her and Miriam, whisking them away from their mother as they screamed and called her name. They never saw her again.

Nazi twin studies

Nazi twin studies

Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana University Press. Following his recovery, he was transferred to the headquarters of the SS Race and Settlement Main Office in Berlinat which point he resumed his association with von Verschuer, who was now director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute of Anthropology, Human Heredity, and Eugenics. Retrieved 11 January Auschwitz: A New History. Joseph Mengele's medical experiments at Auschwitz. Includes several photographs. About Nazi twin studies, twins were pulled from the masses on the ramp, most of them children. The images of that day, and Miroku hentai animations weeks after, are burned into her memory, as brutally permanent as the tattoo on her left forearm.

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Other experiments aimed to develop and Nazi twin studies drugs and treatment methods for injuries and illnesses which German military and occupation personnel encountered in the field. They were then strapped to a table where their hair was plucked out trying to save the hair root. Pictured outside Auschwitz in In earlyencouraged by von Verschuer, Mengele applied to transfer to the concentration camp service. With a small flick of his finger or riding crop, a person would either be sent to the left or to the right, to the gas chamber or to hard labor. New York: Public Affairs. He Oinment available to enhance bigger breast not allow this and increased the temperature slightly to prolong their pain. Nazi twin studies Israel of Columbia University published a report on an investigation on the Medical experimentation performed in Austria under the Nazi Regime. Aleksander Laak Karl Linnas. In other words, the impact of growing up poor can overwhelm a child's natural intellectual gifts. Nazi twin studiesDNA evidence confirmed this conclusion.

There has been no full evaluation of the numbers of victims of Nazi research, who the victims were, and of the frequency and types of experiments and research.

  • Before arriving at the death camp, she had been stuffed into a train car on a seemingly endless journey from Hungary.
  • Many of his cruel experiments were conducted on young twins.
  • Nazi human experimentation was a series of medical experiments on large numbers of prisoners, including children, by Nazi Germany in its concentration camps in the early to mid s, during World War II and the Holocaust.

Many of his cruel experiments were conducted on young twins. Mengele, the notorious doctor of Auschwitz, has become an enigma of the 20th century. Mengele's handsome physical appearance, fastidious dress, and calm demeanor seemingly contradicted his attraction to murder and gruesome experiments. His ability to elude capture increased his notoriety and gave him a mystical and devious persona. In May , Mengele entered Auschwitz as an educated, experienced, medical researcher. With funding for his experiments, he worked alongside some of the top medical researchers of the time.

Anxious to make a name for himself, Mengele searched for the secrets of heredity. The Nazi ideal of the future would benefit from the help of genetics, according to Nazi doctrine. Mengele, who worked for Professor Otmar Freiherr von Vershuer, a biologist who pioneered twin methodology in the study of genetics, believed that twins held these secrets. Auschwitz seemed the best location for such research because of a large number of available twins to use as specimens.

Mengele took his turn as the selector on the ramp, but unlike most of the other selectors, he arrived sober. With a small flick of his finger or riding crop, a person would either be sent to the left or to the right, to the gas chamber or to hard labor. Mengele would get very excited when he found twins. The other SS officers who helped unload the transports had been given special instructions to find twins, dwarfs, giants, or anyone else with a unique hereditary trait like a club foot or heterochromia each eye a different color.

Mengele was on the ramp not only during his selection duty but also when it was not his turn as a selector, to ensure twins would not be missed. As the unsuspecting people were herded off the train and ordered into separate lines, SS officers shouted "Zwillinge! Parents were forced to make a quick decision. Unsure of their situation, already being separated from family members when forced to form lines, seeing barbed wire, smelling an unfamiliar stench — was it good or bad to be a twin?

Sometimes, parents announced they had twins, and in other cases, relatives, friends, or neighbors made the statement. Some mothers tried to hide their twin, but the SS officers and Josef Mengele searched through the surging ranks of people looking for twins and anyone with unusual traits.

While many twins were either announced or discovered, some sets of twins were successfully hidden and walked with their mothers into the gas chamber. About 3, twins were pulled from the masses on the ramp, most of them children.

Only around of these twins survived. When the twins were found, they were taken away from their parents. As the twins were led away to be processed, their parents and family stayed on the ramp and went through selection.

Occasionally, if the twins were very young, Mengele would allow the mother to join her children to ensure their health. After the twins had been taken from their parents, they were taken to the showers. Since they were "Mengele's children," they were treated differently than other prisoners. Though they suffered through medical experiments, the twins were often allowed to keep their hair and allowed to keep their own clothes. They were then taken to the twins' barracks where they were required to fill out a form.

The form asked for a brief history and basic measurements, such as age and height. Many of the twins were too young to fill the form out by themselves, so the Zwillingsvater twin's father helped them. This inmate was assigned to the job of taking care of the male twins. Once the form was filled out, the twins were taken to Mengele. He asked them more questions and looked for any unusual traits.

Each morning, life for the twins began at 6 o'clock. The twins were required to report for roll call in front of their barracks, regardless of weather conditions. After roll call, they ate a small breakfast. Then each morning, Mengele would appear for an inspection. Mengele's presence did not necessarily cause fear in the children.

He was often known to appear with pockets full of candy and chocolates, to pat them on the head, talk with them, and sometimes even play.

Many of the children, especially the younger ones, called him "Uncle Mengele. The twins were given brief instruction in makeshift "classes" and were sometimes even allowed to play soccer. The children were not required to do hard work or labor.

Twins were also spared from punishments, as well as from the frequent selections within the camp. The twins had some of the best conditions of anyone at Auschwitz until the trucks came to take them to the experiments. Mengele kept his exact reasoning for his experiments a secret. Many of the twins that he experimented on did not know the purpose of the experiments, or what exactly what was being injected into or otherwise done to them. Share Flipboard Email. Jennifer Rosenberg is a historian, history fact-checker, and freelance writer who writes about 20th-century history topics.

Generally, every twin had to have blood drawn every day. The experiments included:. Then, every detail of their anatomy was carefully examined, studied, and measured. What was the same between the two was deemed to be hereditary, and what was different was deemed to be the result of the environment. These tests would last for several hours. This often caused severe pain, infections, and temporary or permanent blindness.

Injections into the spine and spinal taps were given with no anesthesia. Diseases, including typhus and tuberculosis, would be purposely given to one twin and not the other. When one died, the other was often killed to examine and compare the effects of the disease. Miklos Nyiszli was Mengele's prisoner pathologist. The autopsies became the final experiment. Nyiszli performed autopsies on twins who had died from the experiments or who had been purposely killed just for after-death measurements and examination.

Some of the twins had been stabbed with a needle that pierced their heart and was then injected with chloroform or phenol, which caused near-immediate blood coagulation and death. Some of the organs, eyes, blood samples, and tissues would be sent to Verschuer for further study. Continue Reading.

Eugenics itself was rooted in twin research. In May , Mengele entered Auschwitz as an educated, experienced, medical researcher. You are searching in English. Surveillance of the house did not reveal Mengele or any members of his family, and the neighborhood postman claimed that although Mengele had recently been receiving letters there under his real name, he had since relocated without leaving a forwarding address. What are the reasons for and against using research data from these experiments? Experiments on Twins The twins were examined from head to toe.

Nazi twin studies

Nazi twin studies

Nazi twin studies. Medical Experiments of the Holocaust and Nazi Medicine

The victim was placed in warm water and the temperature was slowly increased. This method proved to be the best. Many victims died do to shock if they were warmed up to quickly.

Heinrich Himmler suggested to Dr. Rascher that he try to use women to warm the frozen men. He suggested that the victim and a women copulate. This perverted experiment occurred with some success. However it was not as successful as the Warm Bath. The Nordic or Aryan Race was the most important goal of the Nazis. It was the largest part of the over all plan.

The blonde hair, blue eye, super men were to be the only race. The Blacks, Hispanics, Jews, Gypsies, Homosexuals and anyone else that did not meet the race requirements were to by cleansed from society through genocide. Hitler and the German High command made a list rules for the fellow Nazis to follow. The new rules required all SS before marriage must submit to general testing to insure racial purity.

The rules for marriage were unbelievably complex. Thousands of marriages were denied. If the laws for marriage were broken it could mean the death penalty.

Sigmund Rascher and his wife learned what not following the marriage laws would hold for their lives. Rascher was sterile. They were not illegally married; they adopted two children. They were later investigated by the Gestapo and executed for the crime. In this case, after his medical experimentation, it seems fitting that this killer was caught up by his own party. Early in power the National Science groups were pushed into research of the race and experiments commenced.

First the party needed propaganda to prove all other races were inferior. Measurements of heads, eyes, nose, blood were required. The vast majority of the early experiments were a propaganda sham.

It was determined Gypsies had different blood and were inclined to criminal behavior. The same type of findings were made of all races other than the Nazis. After the camps were started, vast genetic experiments were undertaken. The range of the testing was broad and specialized. The two major groups of experiments were first to refine the master race and second to determine the cause of defects.

Josef Mengele research on twins and Gypsies exemplifies the quest for the genetic studies. He would be at every selection when the new trains would arrive at Auschwitz. After the victims were unloaded off the trains and stripped naked and divided into men, women, and children, he would sort through the thousands of people.

Most went straight to the gas chambers and others to hard labor in the camps. The twins, dwarfs, and unique physical specimens were selected to be assigned to the experimental blocks. In many ways the majority who where killed in the gas chambers were much better off than the survivors that had no idea what horrors awaited them.

The twins were examined from head to toe. Measurements of every inch were taken. Mengele demanded specific and careful exams. If any detail was missed the staff, usually a prisoner doctor, would be punished. The twins were allowed to keep their hair for the first several days of the examination. After all the living data was taken the twins would be killed by a single injection of chloroform in the heart.

Care was taken to insure the twins died at the same time. The twins were then dissected with the organs being sent to research centers. Prisoner doctors tell of the fate of two Hungarian twins who arrived atAuschwitz late in Mengele was at the camp selection. The train arrived in the very early morning. Three sets of twins were found. They were taken to the experimental block. Mengele ordered the two Hungarian twins be placed in the examination room.

The twins were showered and returned nude to the examination room. The examination started at the head. All parts of their heads were examined. The head examination took almost days. They were then completely X-rayed. The next part of the examination consisted of tubes being forced through their noses and into their lungs. They were then ventilated with a gas which caused them to cough so severely they had to be restrained.

The sputum from the lungs was collected for examination. The twins were then photographed for several days. The purpose of the photographs were to show hair patterns.

They were each forced to stand, bend, and kneel in many positions to accomplish the photographs. For example, they were required to stand with their arms lifted for many hours so the under arm hair could be photographed. After the photographs were finished they were awoken very early in the morning. They were taken into a room with tables and a hot water vat. The water in the vat was very hot. They were made to sit in the water until they were ready to pass out from the heat.

They were then strapped to a table where their hair was plucked out trying to save the hair root. They were put back into the hot vat several times. Doctors would then look at the effects of experimentation and compare both bodies. As a result of these operations, many victims suffered intense agony, mutilation, and permanent disability. Both operations involved one of her legs and although she never describes having any knowledge as to what exactly the procedure was, she explains that both times she was in extreme pain and developed a fever post surgery.

Yet she was given little to no care. She describes how her leg oozed pus for months after the operations. Prisoners were also experimented on by having their bone marrow injected with bacteria to study the effectiveness of new drugs being developed for use in the battle fields. Many prisoners left the camps with disfigurement that would last the rest of their lives. In mid in Baranowicze , occupied Poland, experiments were conducted in a small building behind the private home occupied by a known Nazi SD Security Service officer, in which "a young boy of eleven or twelve [was] strapped to a chair so he could not move.

Above him was a mechanized hammer that every few seconds came down upon his head. In , the Luftwaffe conducted experiments with the intent of discovering means to prevent and treat hypothermia. There were to experiments and to victims indicating some victims suffered more than one experiment.

Besides studying the physical effects of cold exposure, the experimenters also assessed different methods of rewarming survivors. Beginning in August , at the Dachau camp, prisoners were forced to sit in tanks of freezing water for up to 3 hours.

After subjects were frozen, they then underwent different methods for rewarming. Many subjects died in this process. Many experiments were conducted on captured Russian troops; the Nazis wondered whether their genetics gave them superior resistance to cold.

The principal locales were Dachau and Auschwitz. Rascher had some of the victims completely underwater and others only submerged up to the head.

From about February to about April , experiments were conducted at the Dachau concentration camp in order to investigate immunization for treatment of malaria. Healthy inmates were infected by mosquitoes or by injections of extracts of the mucous glands of female mosquitoes.

After contracting the disease, the subjects were treated with various drugs to test their relative efficacy. At the German concentration camps of Sachsenhausen, Dachau, Natzweiler, Buchenwald, and Neuengamme, scientists tested immunization compounds and serums for the prevention and treatment of contagious diseases, including malaria, typhus, tuberculosis, typhoid fever, yellow fever, and infectious hepatitis.

From June till January at the concentration camps, Sachsenhausen and Natzweiler, experimentation with epidemic jaundice was conducted.

The test subjects were injected with the disease in order to discover new inoculations for the condition. These tests were conducted for the benefit of the German Armed Forces.

Many suffered great pain in these experiments. At various times between September and April , many experiments were conducted at Sachsenhausen , Natzweiler , and other camps to investigate the most effective treatment of wounds caused by mustard gas. Test subjects were deliberately exposed to mustard gas and other vesicants e. Lewisite which inflicted severe chemical burns. The victims' wounds were then tested to find the most effective treatment for the mustard gas burns.

Infection was aggravated by forcing wood shavings and ground glass into the wounds. The infection was treated with sulfonamide and other drugs to determine their effectiveness. From about July to about September , experiments were conducted at the Dachau concentration camp to study various methods of making sea water drinkable. These victims were subject to deprivation of all food and only given the filtered sea water. Hans Eppinger , leaving them gravely injured.

A Holocaust survivor named Joseph Tschofenig wrote a statement on these seawater experiments at Dachau. Tschofenig explained how while working at the medical experimentation stations he gained insight into some of the experiments that were performed on prisoners, namely those where they were forced to drink salt water.

Tschofenig also described how victims of the experiments had trouble eating and would desperately seek out any source of water including old floor rags. Tschofenig was responsible for using the X-ray machine in the infirmary and describes how even though he had insight into what was going on he was powerless to stop it.

He gives the example of a patient in the infirmary who was sent to the gas chambers by Dr. Sigmund Rascher simply because he witnessed one of the low-pressure experiments.

The Law for the Prevention of Genetically Defective Progeny was passed on 14 July , which legalized the involuntary sterilization of persons with diseases claimed to be hereditary: weak-mindedness, schizophrenia, alcohol abuse, insanity, blindness, deafness, and physical deformities.

The law was used to encourage growth of the Aryan race through the sterilization of persons who fell under the quota of being genetically defective. Within 4 years, , patients had been sterilized. Carl Clauberg. The targets for sterilization included Jewish and Roma populations. Thousands of victims were sterilized. Aside from its experimentation, the Nazi government sterilized around , people as part of its compulsory sterilization program.

Intravenous injections of solutions speculated to contain iodine and silver nitrate were successful, but had unwanted side effects such as vaginal bleeding, severe abdominal pain, and cervical cancer. Specific amounts of exposure to radiation destroyed a person's ability to produce ova or sperm, sometimes administered through deception.

Many suffered severe radiation burns. William E. Seidelman, a professor from the University of Toronto, in collaboration with Dr. Howard Israel of Columbia University published a report on an investigation on the Medical experimentation performed in Austria under the Nazi Regime.

In that report he mentions a Doctor Hermann Stieve, who used the war to experiment on live humans. Stieve specifically focused on the reproductive system of women. He would tell women their date of death in advance, and he would evaluate how their psychological distress would affect their menstruation cycles. After they were murdered, he would dissect and examine their reproductive organs. Some of the women were even raped after they were told the date when they would be killed, so that Dr.

Stieve could study the path of sperm through their reproductive system. Somewhere between December and October , experiments were conducted at Buchenwald to investigate the effect of various poisons. The poisons were secretly administered to experimental subjects in their food. The victims died as a result of the poison or were killed immediately in order to permit autopsies.

In September , experimental subjects were shot with poisonous bullets, suffered torture and often died. From around November to around January , experiments were conducted at Buchenwald to test the effect of various pharmaceutical preparations on phosphorus burns. These burns were inflicted on prisoners using phosphorus material extracted from incendiary bombs.

In early , prisoners at Dachau concentration camp were used by Sigmund Rascher in experiments to aid German pilots who had to eject at high altitudes. It was rumored that Rascher performed vivisections on the brains of victims who survived the initial experiment. Sigmund Rascher and Heinrich Himmler, Rascher explains the results of a low-pressure experiment that was performed on people at Dachau Concentration camp in which the victim was suffocated while Rascher and another unnamed doctor took note of his reactions.

The person was described as 37 years old and in good health before being murdered. Rascher described the victim's actions as he began to lose oxygen and timed the changes in behavior. The year-old began to wiggle his head at 4 minutes, a minute later Rascher observed that he was suffering from cramps before falling unconscious.

He describes how the victim then lay unconscious, breathing only 3 times per minute, until he stopped breathing 30 minutes after being deprived of oxygen. The victim then turned blue and began foaming at the mouth. An autopsy followed an hour later. In a letter from Heinrich Himmler to Dr. Sigmund Rascher on April 13, , Himmler ordered Rascher to continue the high altitude experiments and to continue experimenting on prisoners condemned to death and to "determine whether these men could be recalled to life".

If a victim could be successfully resuscitated, Himmler ordered that he be pardoned to "concentration camp for life". Sigmund Rascher experimented with the effects of Polygal , a substance made from beet and apple pectin , which aided blood clotting. He predicted that the preventive use of Polygal tablets would reduce bleeding from gunshot wounds sustained during combat or during surgery. Subjects were given a Polygal tablet, and shot through the neck or chest, or their limbs amputated without anaesthesia.

Rascher published an article on his experience of using Polygal, without detailing the nature of the human trials and also set up a company to manufacture the substance, staffed by prisoners.

Nazi human experimentation - Wikipedia

Nazi human experimentation was a series of medical experiments on large numbers of prisoners, including children, by Nazi Germany in its concentration camps in the early to mid s, during World War II and the Holocaust. Nazi physicians and their assistants forced prisoners into participating; they did not willingly volunteer and no consent was given for the procedures.

Typically, the experiments resulted in death, trauma , disfigurement or permanent disability , and as such are considered examples of medical torture. At Auschwitz and other camps, under the direction of Eduard Wirths , selected inmates were subjected to various hazardous experiments that were designed to help German military personnel in combat situations, develop new weapons, aid in the recovery of military personnel who had been injured, and to advance the Nazi racial ideology.

After the war, these crimes were tried at what became known as the Doctors' Trial , and revulsion at the abuses perpetrated led to the development of the Nuremberg Code of medical ethics. The Nazi physicians in the Doctors' Trial argued that military necessity justified their torturous experiments, and compared their victims to collateral damage from Allied bombings. But this defense, which was in any case rejected by the Tribunal, cannot apply to the twin experiments of Josef Mengele, which were performed on children and had no connection to military necessity.

The table of contents of a document from the Nuremberg military tribunals prosecution includes titles of the sections that document medical experiments revolving around: food, seawater, epidemic jaundice, sulfanilamide, blood coagulation and phlegmone. Experiments on twin children in concentration camps were created to show the similarities and differences in the genetics of twins, as well as to see if the human body can be unnaturally manipulated.

The central leader of the experiments was Josef Mengele , who from to performed experiments on nearly 1, sets of imprisoned twins at Auschwitz. About people survived these studies. If the experimentation reached the point of death, the second twin would be brought in to be killed at the same time. Doctors would then look at the effects of experimentation and compare both bodies.

As a result of these operations, many victims suffered intense agony, mutilation, and permanent disability. Both operations involved one of her legs and although she never describes having any knowledge as to what exactly the procedure was, she explains that both times she was in extreme pain and developed a fever post surgery. Yet she was given little to no care. She describes how her leg oozed pus for months after the operations.

Prisoners were also experimented on by having their bone marrow injected with bacteria to study the effectiveness of new drugs being developed for use in the battle fields. Many prisoners left the camps with disfigurement that would last the rest of their lives. In mid in Baranowicze , occupied Poland, experiments were conducted in a small building behind the private home occupied by a known Nazi SD Security Service officer, in which "a young boy of eleven or twelve [was] strapped to a chair so he could not move.

Above him was a mechanized hammer that every few seconds came down upon his head. In , the Luftwaffe conducted experiments with the intent of discovering means to prevent and treat hypothermia. There were to experiments and to victims indicating some victims suffered more than one experiment. Besides studying the physical effects of cold exposure, the experimenters also assessed different methods of rewarming survivors.

Beginning in August , at the Dachau camp, prisoners were forced to sit in tanks of freezing water for up to 3 hours. After subjects were frozen, they then underwent different methods for rewarming.

Many subjects died in this process. Many experiments were conducted on captured Russian troops; the Nazis wondered whether their genetics gave them superior resistance to cold.

The principal locales were Dachau and Auschwitz. Rascher had some of the victims completely underwater and others only submerged up to the head. From about February to about April , experiments were conducted at the Dachau concentration camp in order to investigate immunization for treatment of malaria. Healthy inmates were infected by mosquitoes or by injections of extracts of the mucous glands of female mosquitoes.

After contracting the disease, the subjects were treated with various drugs to test their relative efficacy. At the German concentration camps of Sachsenhausen, Dachau, Natzweiler, Buchenwald, and Neuengamme, scientists tested immunization compounds and serums for the prevention and treatment of contagious diseases, including malaria, typhus, tuberculosis, typhoid fever, yellow fever, and infectious hepatitis.

From June till January at the concentration camps, Sachsenhausen and Natzweiler, experimentation with epidemic jaundice was conducted. The test subjects were injected with the disease in order to discover new inoculations for the condition. These tests were conducted for the benefit of the German Armed Forces. Many suffered great pain in these experiments. At various times between September and April , many experiments were conducted at Sachsenhausen , Natzweiler , and other camps to investigate the most effective treatment of wounds caused by mustard gas.

Test subjects were deliberately exposed to mustard gas and other vesicants e. Lewisite which inflicted severe chemical burns. The victims' wounds were then tested to find the most effective treatment for the mustard gas burns. Infection was aggravated by forcing wood shavings and ground glass into the wounds.

The infection was treated with sulfonamide and other drugs to determine their effectiveness. From about July to about September , experiments were conducted at the Dachau concentration camp to study various methods of making sea water drinkable. These victims were subject to deprivation of all food and only given the filtered sea water.

Hans Eppinger , leaving them gravely injured. A Holocaust survivor named Joseph Tschofenig wrote a statement on these seawater experiments at Dachau. Tschofenig explained how while working at the medical experimentation stations he gained insight into some of the experiments that were performed on prisoners, namely those where they were forced to drink salt water.

Tschofenig also described how victims of the experiments had trouble eating and would desperately seek out any source of water including old floor rags. Tschofenig was responsible for using the X-ray machine in the infirmary and describes how even though he had insight into what was going on he was powerless to stop it. He gives the example of a patient in the infirmary who was sent to the gas chambers by Dr.

Sigmund Rascher simply because he witnessed one of the low-pressure experiments. The Law for the Prevention of Genetically Defective Progeny was passed on 14 July , which legalized the involuntary sterilization of persons with diseases claimed to be hereditary: weak-mindedness, schizophrenia, alcohol abuse, insanity, blindness, deafness, and physical deformities.

The law was used to encourage growth of the Aryan race through the sterilization of persons who fell under the quota of being genetically defective. Within 4 years, , patients had been sterilized. Carl Clauberg. The targets for sterilization included Jewish and Roma populations. Thousands of victims were sterilized. Aside from its experimentation, the Nazi government sterilized around , people as part of its compulsory sterilization program.

Intravenous injections of solutions speculated to contain iodine and silver nitrate were successful, but had unwanted side effects such as vaginal bleeding, severe abdominal pain, and cervical cancer. Specific amounts of exposure to radiation destroyed a person's ability to produce ova or sperm, sometimes administered through deception. Many suffered severe radiation burns. William E. Seidelman, a professor from the University of Toronto, in collaboration with Dr.

Howard Israel of Columbia University published a report on an investigation on the Medical experimentation performed in Austria under the Nazi Regime. In that report he mentions a Doctor Hermann Stieve, who used the war to experiment on live humans.

Stieve specifically focused on the reproductive system of women. He would tell women their date of death in advance, and he would evaluate how their psychological distress would affect their menstruation cycles.

After they were murdered, he would dissect and examine their reproductive organs. Some of the women were even raped after they were told the date when they would be killed, so that Dr.

Stieve could study the path of sperm through their reproductive system. Somewhere between December and October , experiments were conducted at Buchenwald to investigate the effect of various poisons. The poisons were secretly administered to experimental subjects in their food. The victims died as a result of the poison or were killed immediately in order to permit autopsies. In September , experimental subjects were shot with poisonous bullets, suffered torture and often died.

From around November to around January , experiments were conducted at Buchenwald to test the effect of various pharmaceutical preparations on phosphorus burns. These burns were inflicted on prisoners using phosphorus material extracted from incendiary bombs.

In early , prisoners at Dachau concentration camp were used by Sigmund Rascher in experiments to aid German pilots who had to eject at high altitudes. It was rumored that Rascher performed vivisections on the brains of victims who survived the initial experiment.

Sigmund Rascher and Heinrich Himmler, Rascher explains the results of a low-pressure experiment that was performed on people at Dachau Concentration camp in which the victim was suffocated while Rascher and another unnamed doctor took note of his reactions.

The person was described as 37 years old and in good health before being murdered. Rascher described the victim's actions as he began to lose oxygen and timed the changes in behavior. The year-old began to wiggle his head at 4 minutes, a minute later Rascher observed that he was suffering from cramps before falling unconscious.

He describes how the victim then lay unconscious, breathing only 3 times per minute, until he stopped breathing 30 minutes after being deprived of oxygen. The victim then turned blue and began foaming at the mouth. An autopsy followed an hour later. In a letter from Heinrich Himmler to Dr.

Sigmund Rascher on April 13, , Himmler ordered Rascher to continue the high altitude experiments and to continue experimenting on prisoners condemned to death and to "determine whether these men could be recalled to life".

If a victim could be successfully resuscitated, Himmler ordered that he be pardoned to "concentration camp for life". Sigmund Rascher experimented with the effects of Polygal , a substance made from beet and apple pectin , which aided blood clotting. He predicted that the preventive use of Polygal tablets would reduce bleeding from gunshot wounds sustained during combat or during surgery. Subjects were given a Polygal tablet, and shot through the neck or chest, or their limbs amputated without anaesthesia.

Rascher published an article on his experience of using Polygal, without detailing the nature of the human trials and also set up a company to manufacture the substance, staffed by prisoners. Other documented transcriptions from Heinrich Himmler include phrases such as "These researches… can be performed by us with particular efficiency because I personally assumed the responsibility for supplying asocial individuals and criminals who deserve only to die from concentration camps for these experiments.

Karl Brandt et al. At the trial, several of the doctors argued in their defense that there was no international law regarding medical experimentation. An SS doctor was quoted saying that "Jews were the festering appendix in the body of Europe. The issue of informed consent had previously been controversial in German medicine in , when Dr.

Nazi twin studies

Nazi twin studies