Frontal A and lateral B views of the average African American face. Surface landmarks are denoted. Explanation of the abbreviations is given in the first footnote to Table 1. Two-section facial profile. The average African American woman has a special facial height endocanthion-gnathion [en-gn] of less than the special head height vertex-endocanthion [v-en] , although the proportions are roughly equal.
Standard photographs of the face were obtained, including the frontal, right and left lateral, right and left oblique, and base views. African facial features, they note that there are inherent problems with measurements taken in this indirect manner. Am J Clin Nutr — Brit J Psychol doi: However, on investigating, we found that Spongebob fucks sandy classification fratures affected by many subjective factors as well as other features over which orthodontic treatment has no influence, such as ears, forehead, cheek, hair, eyes, eyebrows, head, and neck. Every human face is a variation on the mask. In other projects Wikimedia Commons. Table Of Contents. Perception — This article has been cited by other articles in PMC.
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Among the Negroids, hair colour is brown black, texture is coarse, form is woolly or frizzly and body hair, sparse. This individual African facial features a Parisian, but his mother came from the Pyrenees. Many of the Portugese belong to Africaan more robust Mediterranean sub-variety, which is also common in southern Italy, and may have been one of the earliest Mediterranean elements to arrive in Muff dive a redhead Europe. Oslo, The Negroids have brown Agrican brown-black or yellow-brown skin colour. By the s, some scholars regarded the Khoisan as a separate race known as the Capoid racewhile others continued to favial them as a Negroid subrace. Much more work needs to be done in southeastern Europe before their historical position and relationships can be established. Transforming Anthropology. A Swede from Sonderhamn who represents the same type, and who is very similar in most dimensions. They form the last major outpost of the Alpine race to the East, as far as we know at African facial features.
In the United States , for example, the people identified as African Americans do not share a common set of physical characteristics.
- Frontal A and lateral B views of the average African American face.
- Negroid also known as Congoid  is a historical grouping of human beings, once purported to be an identifiable race and applied as a political class by another dominant 'non-negroid' culture.
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Little is known about mate choice preferences outside Western, educated, industrialised, rich and democratic societies, even though these Western populations may be particularly unrepresentative of human populations. To our knowledge, this is the first study to test which facial cues contribute to African perceptions of African female attractiveness and also the first study to test the combined role of facial adiposity, skin colour lightness, yellowness and redness , skin homogeneity and youthfulness in the facial attractiveness preferences of any population.
Results show that youthfulness, skin colour, skin homogeneity and facial adiposity significantly and independently predict attractiveness in female African faces. Younger, thinner women with a lighter, yellower skin colour and a more homogenous skin tone are considered more attractive. These findings provide a more global perspective on human mate choice and point to a universal role for these four facial cues in female facial attractiveness.
This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist. The majority of studies on human behaviour focus exclusively on populations in Western, educated, industrialised, rich and democratic WEIRD societies  , .
Results from these studies are extrapolated to explain human behaviour in general, despite the fact that WEIRD populations may be particularly unrepresentative of the human species as a whole  , . In order to achieve a more global perspective on human behaviour, we need to expand the literature to include other populations. Little is known about the mate choice preferences of African populations, a shortcoming this study aims to partly address.
Facial attractiveness plays a crucial role in human mating success  and explains more variance in overall attractiveness than bodily attractiveness . Despite a plethora of studies on the role of these facial cues in attractiveness in WEIRD populations e.
Here we focus on the role of facial adiposity, skin colour, skin homogeneity and youthfulness in apparent attractiveness of African female faces in a native African population. Facial adiposity plays an important role in attractiveness judgements of British populations . The relationship is curvilinear, in that overweight and underweight individuals of both sexes are judged less attractive than their normal weight counterparts  see  for single sex analyses.
Facial adiposity serves as a robust cue to health, since it is significantly related to both health judgements and actual measures of health e. Further studies also found a significant association between facial adiposity and health measures, such as poor general condition  and heart disease mortality .
Facial adiposity might also serve as a cue to fertility, since overweight and underweight women are less likely to conceive compared to normal weight women  and facial adiposity is negatively associated with salivary progesterone levels . Pale skinned women are considered more attractive than darker skinned women in a wide range of cultures  ,  , including the African-American population . Despite this, some studies find that skin tanning is considered attractive in European and American societies  , presumably because it serves as a status symbol .
A lighter skin colour might serve as an indicator of fertility, as skin darkens with age, as well as in the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle and during pregnancy  , . In addition, skin lightness might serve as a cue to femininity and health, since women generally have a lighter skin colour than men  , and European  and African  observers increase skin lightness to increase apparent health in same ethnicity faces.
Enhanced yellowness in human skin has primarily been attributed to an increase in carotenoids . These are yellow and red skin pigments obtained from fruit and vegetables that are deposited in the skin . Yellowness might serve as a cue to health since European  ,  and African  observers increase skin yellowness to increase apparent health in same ethnicity faces, and plasma carotenoids levels decrease in individuals with HIV and malaria .
A slightly redder skin tone serves as a cue to increased skin blood perfusion and oxygenation . Since judgements of attractiveness and health are closely correlated e. Yet, the relationship between redness and attractiveness judgements is unclear. Re et al. On the other hand, two other studies did not find a significant association between skin redness and attractiveness in female European  or male African and European faces .
Homogenous smooth skin—particularly a homogenous skin colour distribution—positively contributes to European attractiveness judgements of shape standardised female faces  ,  and cropped female skin images  , but not unmanipulated female faces . Skin colour homogeneity serves as a cue to health, youthfulness and cumulative UV damage  —  and might depict healthy hormonal levels  ; elevated levels of serum testosterone, progesterone, glucocorticoids, insulin and decreased levels of estrogen are associated with acne vulgaris, the most common form of acne .
Men generally prefer to marry younger women  and judge younger looking female faces as significantly more fertile and attractive  , . Attractiveness preferences for female faces can change facultatively in response to a variety of factors  ,  , including environmental and conditional factors such as health, fertility  ,  and resource availability .
South Africa is a country that differs vastly from Western developed countries where preference studies are normally conducted. First, South Africa has a much higher disease burden than Western developed countries. The average life expectancy at birth in South Africa is 54, compared to 80 in the UK .
South African women also have higher prevalence of obesity South Africans are expected to pay particular attention to health cues in potential sexual partners because of a high HIV infection rate Finally, heavy women are considered attractive in traditional African subsistence-based societies  , but the recent political and economic transition in South Africa might have changed attractiveness preferences amongst the young African elite. Modern African female fashion models in South Africa are significantly thinner than their white counterparts  and African University students report significantly more eating disorder pathology than white students in South Africa .
These studies might indicate a shift to a new African body ideal closely aligned to Western ideals. A lighter, yellower and redder skin colour is also considered more attractive in traditional African society even before colonial occupation .
In modern African society a preference for lighter skin colour is still prevalent, with young upwardly mobile African women driving the market for skin lighteners . The aim of this study is to test the combined role of facial adiposity, skin colour, skin homogeneity and youthfulness—four facial features previously found to affect attractiveness in WEIRD populations— in African attractiveness judgements of unmanipulated African female faces. To our knowledge, this is the first study to test the relationship between these facial features and female attractiveness in a native African population.
In addition, most studies test the relationship between individual facial cues and attractiveness in isolation for review see  ; but see  for notable exception , despite the fact that observers have access to multiple facial cues simultaneously. By including all four facial cues in a single analysis we can also assess whether the cues make independent contributions to attractiveness, or whether some correlated cues contribute similar information for attractiveness judgements.
All participants gave written informed consent prior to taking part in the study. The participant group included underweight The booth was located in a room with no other lighting. Participants were seated a set distance from the camera, asked to look straight at the camera, maintain a neutral expression and had their hair pulled back to reveal facial features. A Gretag-Macbeth Mini ColorChecker color chart was included in each frame by mounting it on a Munsell N5 painted chest board that covered the body and shoulders of participants.
Images were resized, colour corrected using in-house software, manually delineated by defining feature points and aligned according to interpupillary distance in PsychoMorph . Participants provided information on their sex and age. Higher values on the three axes indicate lighter, redder and yellower colours respectively. Participants were asked to indicate whether they knew the person in the photograph and ratings were excluded if they did 4. Weight ratings of facial images were used as a measure of facial adiposity.
Participants received training to identify post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation before rating the images Text S2. Skin heterogeneity and post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation images were previewed before rating, to familiarise participants with the range and variability of images and presented in a randomised order.
Prior to analysis, all variables were examined for accuracy of data entry, missing values, outliers, normality of their distributions and pairwise linearity . We included a second order equation for facial adiposity facial adiposity 2 since previous studies found a curvilinear relationship between facial adiposity and attractiveness . All statistical analyses were performed in SPSS All the independent variables, including facial adiposity, appear to be linearly related to attractiveness.
The post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation and skin heterogeneity ratings were also highly inter-correlated Table 1. Higher values for the colour component indicate lighter 0. Higher values for the heterogeneity component indicate higher post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation 0.
We fitted a simultaneous GLM with attractiveness as the dependent variable and age, facial adiposity, facial adiposity 2 and the skin colour and heterogeneity components as independent variables.
Skin colour, facial adiposity, age and skin heterogeneity significantly predicted female facial attractiveness, while facial adiposity 2 did not Table 2.
Younger, thinner women with higher values for the skin colour component lighter, yellower and redder skin colour and lower values for the skin heterogeneity component more homogenous skin were considered significantly more attractive than their counterparts Figure 1. The predictor variables each explained roughly the same amount of variance, with age explaining the most variance, followed by skin colour, skin heterogeneity and facial adiposity Table 1. Composite images of the 10 women rated A least attractive, and B most attractive by African university students.
Images produced with wavelet magnitude textural processing in Psychomorph. Due to the blending process involved in producing composite images, skin heterogeneity differences between the two groups are somewhat obscured.
Our aim was to test the combined role of four facial cues —facial adiposity, skin colour, skin homogeneity and age — as predictors of female facial attractiveness in an African population.
To our knowledge, this is the first study to test which facial cues, or a combination thereof, predict attractiveness in female African faces. Our results show that when considered together age, skin colour, skin homogeneity and facial adiposity, significantly and independently contribute to what Africans consider attractive in African female faces.
The fact that these four facial cues play important roles in female attractiveness preferences in European and African populations point to a more universal role for these facial cues in female attractiveness preferences.
A lighter, yellower skin colour may serve as a cue to health and fertility  , . Skin redness was not significantly associated with female attractiveness in African female faces; a finding that is consistent with previous findings in unmanipulated European female  and African male faces  , but inconsistent with findings from studies which manipulated skin redness in facial images  ,  , .
It follows that enhanced skin redness might play some role in perceptions of health and attractiveness, but its relative contribution may be overshadowed by other colour cues i. We show that increased skin homogeneity significantly contributes to attractiveness judgements of African female faces. Previous work in European populations found a significant relationship between skin homogeneity and attractiveness in shape standardised faces and skin patches  —  , but not in unmanipulated faces  , such as the faces presented in this study.
Results show that facial adiposity significantly predicts African perceptions of attractiveness in African female faces. Contrary to previous findings in a British population  , African participants judged thinner e. Given that a the relationship between facial adiposity and attractiveness was linear, and b This preference for underweight women is somewhat surprising given that low body weight is often perceived as an indication of illness and disease, particularly HIV infection  in South Africa.
The preference for thinner women is also inconsistent with traditional African values and low resource availability, but is consistent with modern media ideals, which portray a new African body ideal that is closely aligned to Western ideals . This preference for thinner women might be limited to the African elite, who have better healthcare, living conditions, higher income and more access to Western media. A preference for heavy women might still be true amongst other subsets of the population .
It is also possible that those Africans who relocated to the UK already preferred a lower BMI while living in South Africa, since they were likely to come from wealthier urban environments. In line with our predictions for health and fertility, youthfulness significantly predicted attractiveness in African female faces. Africans judged younger women significantly more attractive than older women, even within the small age range studied 18—24 years.
Most studies test the relationship between facial cues and attractiveness in isolation e. By including all four facial cues in a single GLM we were able to determine the independent contributions of each facial cue to the overall attractiveness judgements.
All four facial cues contributed independently to attractiveness, indicating that each of the four facial cues plays an important role in overall attractiveness and that people use multiple cues to judge attractiveness in female faces. In summary, this is the first study to test female facial attractiveness preferences in an African population.
They form the last major outpost of the Alpine race to the East, as far as we know at present. A Greek from Sparta. From the Bobby R. There is no essential difference between the two races other than pigmentation. Among the Negroids, hair colour is brown black, texture is coarse, form is woolly or frizzly and body hair, sparse. Crania Americana: or a comparatif view of the skulls of various aboriginal nations of America.
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Face Variations by Ethnic Group - Marquardt Beauty Analysis
Language: English Portuguese. Authors contribution Conception or design of the study: LCF. Overall responsibility: ARM. The objective of this study was to evaluate the facial attractiveness in 30 black individuals, according to the Subjective Facial Analysis criteria. Frontal and profile view photographs of 30 black individuals were evaluated for facial attractiveness and classified as esthetically unpleasant, acceptable, or pleasant by 50 evaluators: the 30 individuals from the sample, 10 orthodontists, and 10 laymen.
Besides assessing the facial attractiveness, the evaluators had to identify the structures responsible for the classification as unpleasant and pleasant. Intraexaminer agreement was assessed by using Spearman's correlation, correlation within each category using Kendall concordance coefficient, and correlation between the 3 categories using chi-square test and proportions.
Most of the frontal The structures most identified as esthetically unpleasant were the mouth, lips, and face, in the frontal view; and nose and chin in the profile view. The structures most identified as esthetically pleasant were harmony, face, and mouth, in the frontal view; and harmony and nose in the profile view.
The ratings by the examiners in the sample and laymen groups showed statistically significant correlation in both views. The orthodontists agreed with the laymen on the evaluation of the frontal view and disagreed on profile view, especially regarding whether the images were esthetically unpleasant or acceptable. Based on these results, the evaluation of facial attractiveness according to the Subjective Facial Analysis criteria proved to be applicable and to have a subjective influence; therefore, it is suggested that the patient's opinion regarding the facial esthetics should be considered in orthodontic treatmentplanning.
In Orthodontics, diagnosis is made on the basis of anamnesis; clinical examination; facial, cephalometric and cast models analysis. The facial analysis is reported in the literature since Angle 1 considered Apollo Belvedere's profile as the ideal, but soon admitted that there were other ideally beautiful faces 2 that orthodontists should be able to identify. Since the advent of cephalometry, lateral radiographs of the face are being used to analyze the facial profile. Similarly, another study 11 that evaluated photographs, reported that black individuals, particularly men, have a more protrusive soft tissue profile than Caucasians.
Sutter and Turley 15 evaluated pictures of black and Caucasian women, both models and non-models, from fashion magazines. They concluded that the facial profiles of black models and non-models were similar, but those of the Caucasian women were significantly different, with models presenting more prominent lips. To evaluate the changes in the profiles of black American women, Yehezkel and Turley 16 evaluated photographs from fashion magazines published in the s through the s and found that in the last three decades, the lips tended to be more prominent and anteriorly positioned, and profile convexity increased.
In another study, 17 30 silhouettes of black Americans and 30 Caucasians were evaluated by black and Caucasians orthodontists and layperson, and all evaluators preferred a more convex profile and greater lip protrusion for black individuals.
A new facial classification, based on growth pattern was proposed by Capelozza Filho. Based on this analysis, we routinely classify individuals as esthetically unpleasant, esthetically acceptable, and esthetically pleasant. This last facial analysis is more important because the facial attractiveness of people is judged by all as the harmony of facial characteristics, regardless the facial growth and skeletal disproportion.
The main objective of this study was to understand the preferred esthetic standards for black individuals, from the perspective of their own opinion black people from the sample , orthodontists and lay people. Another objective was to identify the most important facial features responsible for the attractiveness. Accurate diagnosis requires a clear understanding of what is considered normal, and it is essential to establish a consensus regarding the goals between doctors and patients, to achieve the most esthetic treatment results.
The sample comprised 30 Brazilian black individuals 15 males and 15 females , mean age of The sample had lip competence, no skeletal discrepancies or asymmetries, and no previous facial or orthognathic surgery and were available for participation. Standardized frontal and profile photographs 19 , 20 of all individuals were obtained.
The photographs were assessed by 50 evaluators: 30 individuals from the sample, 10 orthodontists selected according to their experience minimum 10 years , and 10 laymen individuals with no orthodontic knowledge , with ages ranging between The classification of the pictures followed the pattern described by Reis et al. In the photographs scored as , the evaluators were required to mention the facial feature that they found unpleasant, and conversely, to mention the feature that they found pleasant in photographs scored as The photographs were evaluated twice by three individuals of each group of evaluators, with a day interval between assessments.
Intraexaminer agreement was assessed using Spearman's correlation, and the correlation between the three categories was assessed using chi-square test and proportion test. All statistical procedures were performed with the Statistica software, version 12 StatSoft Inc. To evaluate intra-evaluator correlation, it was used the Spearman correlation coefficient, which ranged from 0.
Categories with the same letter have no significant difference between them. Positions with the same letter have no significant difference between them. Facial esthetics is one of the main reasons for seeking orthodontic treatment. The results show that most of the sample was classified as esthetically acceptable by the three categories of evaluators, which was comparable to the findings of other studies Tables 1 and 2.
The sample group classified The laymen classified The orthodontists classified This group showed a statistically significant difference, indicating that the criteria of choice in this group was subjective.
As reported by Thomas, 12 the profile view is better at representing the skeletal discrepancies than the frontal view. However, Cavichiolo et al 27 reported contrasting results that the laymen were more critical than orthodontists for the profile view photographs, while assessing facial attractiveness in subjects with Patterns II and III.
Therefore, it is possible that the criterion of analysis is influenced by the training of orthodontists, justifying a greater tolerance for eventual errors. This percentage, although is the lowest among evaluators, leads us to question whether the inclusion criteria for collecting a sample representative of the face of a standard black Brazilian was correct.
However, on investigating, we found that this classification is affected by many subjective factors as well as other features over which orthodontic treatment has no influence, such as ears, forehead, cheek, hair, eyes, eyebrows, head, and neck.
From a technical perspective, features such as the nose, mouth, and chin indicated as esthetically unpleasant should be given more importance during clinical evaluation and classification of patients for diagnosis and treatment.
In frontal view photographs, mouth, nose, ear, and eye were most frequently cited as esthetically unpleasant by the sample group; mouth, nose, eye, and ear by laymen; and face and lips by orthodontists Table 3. The features reported as unpleasant by the orthodontists were surprising because they were rather nonspecific, as opposed to those reported by the sample group, who mentioned much more specific features, sometimes mentioning more than one feature for an individual.
In profile view photographs, nose, mouth, and chin were most frequently cited as esthetically unpleasant by the sample group; chin and nose by laymen; and profile, mandible, lower face and bimaxillary protrusion, by orthodontists Table 4. These results are consistent with the findings of Reis et al, 19 who reported that the nose and chin were the most cited features, and those of Almeida et al 23 and Ferrari Jr et al, 24 who reported that the nose is the second most mentioned structure.
Overall, the profile view was more frequently cited as responsible for the unpleasant classification, perhaps because it shows a global view of the individual. Bimaxillary protrusion was not mentioned by any other category of evaluators, except orthodontists, perhaps because it is a technical term.
In frontal view photographs, face, harmony, mouth, eye, lips, chin, and nose were most frequently cited as esthetically pleasant by the sample group; face, mouth, harmony, and eye by laymen; and harmony, face, and eye by orthodontists Table 5. This result indicates that the perception of beauty depends more on the whole face rather than on individual structures, as supported by findings of Dierkes 5 and Okuyama et al.
In profile view photographs, profile, face, nose, mouth, and chin were most frequently cited as esthetically pleasant by the sample group; harmony, nose, and face by laymen; and harmony and profile by orthodontists Table 6. These results indicate that in the profile view, it is difficult to identify the feature responsible for the perception of beauty.
However, the fact that the sample group chose the profile view to be more representative of beauty - in despite that the orthodontists identified bimaxillary protrusion as representative of esthetically unpleasant structures - means that protruding profile is considered more pleasing in a black population. These findings corroborate with other studies, 15 , 16 , 17 which showed that a more prominent profile was considered more beautiful, especially for women.
According to the judgement by the evaluators, black individuals were classified as acceptable facial attractiveness. The best results of acceptable and pleasant facial attractiveness were found by the group of non-orthodontists.
It was not possible to identify the most important feature responsible for facial attractiveness, in the frontal and profile view. These results highlight the importance of the individual's opinion in relation to facial esthetics when planning orthodontic treatment, because individuals generally seek orthodontic treatment looking for an esthetic improvement in their smile and face.
National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Dental Press J Orthod. Find articles by Renata Rodrigues Almeida-Pedrin. Find articles by Victor Didier. Find articles by Danilo Pinelli Valarelli.
Find articles by Leopoldino Capelozza, Filho. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Received May 18; Accepted Aug Copyright notice. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License.
This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Methods: Frontal and profile view photographs of 30 black individuals were evaluated for facial attractiveness and classified as esthetically unpleasant, acceptable, or pleasant by 50 evaluators: the 30 individuals from the sample, 10 orthodontists, and 10 laymen. Results: Most of the frontal Conclusions: Based on these results, the evaluation of facial attractiveness according to the Subjective Facial Analysis criteria proved to be applicable and to have a subjective influence; therefore, it is suggested that the patient's opinion regarding the facial esthetics should be considered in orthodontic treatmentplanning.
Open in a separate window. Figure 1. Figure 2. Table 1 Comparison of ratings of each category of evaluator. Table 2 Comparison between the positions within each category of evaluator. Table 3 Frontal view structures recognized as esthetically unpleasant.
Table 4 Profile view structures recognized as esthetically unpleasant. Table 5 Frontal view structures recognized as esthetically pleasant. Table 6 Profile view structures recognized as esthetically pleasant. Table 5 - Frontal view structures recognized as esthetically pleasant.
Footnotes 3 " Patients displayed in this article previously approved the use of their facial and intraoral photographs. Angle EH. Classification of malocclusion. Dent Cosmos. Treatment of malocclusion of the teeth. Angle's system. Philadelphia: S. White;