However, they are related but not identical concepts. Privacy refers to the right to control access to oneself, and includes physical privacy such as ensuring curtains are closed during physical examinations. Privacy may also relate to information about oneself, and information privacy laws regulate the handling of personal information through enforceable privacy principles. Confidentiality relates to information only. The legal duty of confidentiality obliges health care practitioners to protect their patients against inappropriate disclosure of personal health information.
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In most cases, the Commission will collect your personal information directly from you. Such circumstances include the following:. The Commission will generally use and disclose personal information Aged care documents about confidentiality the particular purpose for which it was collected. We will always endeavour to collect information from you directly, however in some cases we may collect information about you from others. Practitioners need to appreciate the potential consequences and impact of an HIV diagnosis on a patient; although running tests and delivering diagnosis may Aged care documents about confidentiality standard for the health-care practitioner, receiving the results may be anything but routine for the patient. Find out more about the security that powers s of medical practices. Office of the Information Commissioner infocomm nt. Committee on Lesbian leash sex. Home and community support and equipment Aids and equipment at home Disability aids and equipment such as wheelchairs, walking frames and braces can help people with disabilities and the elderly gain more independence The information Evergreen engine exchange spokane materials contained on this website are not intended to constitute a comprehensive guide concerning all aspects of the therapy, product or treatment described on the website. We take all reasonable steps to protect the personal information we hold and ensure it is secure, this includes the following measures:. If you have any security concerns, or if you wish to provide personal information by other means e. You always have the right to access it yourself by asking for a copy.
Personal information collected may include your name, address, date of birth, gender, some medical history, information about your illnesses, symptoms, disabilities, your ethnic background and sexual practice if relevant to your health or provision of the services and any other information required in order for us to provide you with:.
- We also assessed whether confidentiality issues were associated with obtaining contraceptive services among females.
- We are committed to protecting your privacy.
- However, they are related but not identical concepts.
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- How does your clinic fare in protecting the private details of your patients, staff and allied networks?
However, they are related but not identical concepts. Privacy refers to the right to control access to oneself, and includes physical privacy such as ensuring curtains are closed during physical examinations. Privacy may also relate to information about oneself, and information privacy laws regulate the handling of personal information through enforceable privacy principles. Confidentiality relates to information only.
The legal duty of confidentiality obliges health care practitioners to protect their patients against inappropriate disclosure of personal health information. Exceptions to this must be taken very seriously. They may include an emergency scenario or where required by law.
Across Australia, the protection of health-related information has attracted special treatment, partly as a response to the sensitive nature of health information. This point cannot be over-emphasised. The health sector is second only to the finance sector in the number of privacy complaints received by the Office of the Information Commissioner.
Since January , all Australians will have had a My Health Record created unless they have opted out of getting one. They may choose to delete their record at any time.
Patients can then make an informed decision about engaging with My Health Record. Individuals with concerns about the disclosures of sensitive health information may choose to opt out to protect their privacy. Clinicians need to be aware that a patient may feel compelled to follow their direction about whether or not to engage with the record, so having an open discussion in a judgment-free manner is very important.
Electronic records generate risks of data leakage, access by unauthorised staff, browsing by unauthorised people and hacking. Agencies and businesses, including medical practices, need to consider the security of their data storage and transfer systems and the problem of staff intentionally or inadvertently accessing prohibited electronic records. For more information on professional legal obligations in respect of the My Health Record, visit the My Health Record page.
There are no nationally agreed laws specifically relating to the management of medical records with HIV or other notifiable diseases and each state and territory has approached the issue differently. In summary, a health service can be broadly defined as any activity that involves:.
Consequently, health services include traditional health service providers such as private hospitals and day surgeries, medical practitioners, pharmacists and allied health professionals, as well as complementary therapists, and many others. An outline of the jurisdiction of the Act is available here. Practitioners should familiarise themselves with the Australian Privacy Principles which are legally binding and seek advice if necessary. It is important to understand both state and Commonwealth-based laws.
Consequently, private sector health-service providers must comply with two sets of privacy legislation federal and NSW that are largely, but not wholly, compatible.
The two sets of legislation impose similar obligations on private health-care providers. Most states now have laws severely restricting the transfer of information in the health sector without the consent of the patient, and in some states, breaches of confidentiality amount to a criminal offence. A person may be able to launch a civil action against a clinician or health service that has breached legal duties.
To ensure compliance with both federal and local privacy laws, you should contact the relevant privacy regulators listed in Table Office of the Australian Information Commissioner enquiries oaic. Office of the Information Commissioner infocomm nt. Office of the Information Commissioner 07 enquiries oic. Privacy Committee of South Australia 08 p rivacy sa. Ombudsman Tasmania ombudsman ombudsman. Office of the Victorian Privacy Commissioner enquiries privacy.
There are a number of broad privacy-related issues facing health care providers that are particularly relevant to health care for people with HIV. These include:. Key health and HIV-related confidentiality provisions within various state and territory health acts summarised. Otherwise, a person who, in the course of providing a service, acquires information that another person may be or is HIV positive, must take all reasonable steps to prevent disclosure of the information.
There are exemptions, which include:. The application may be made only if the Secretary has reasonable grounds to believe that the person has HIV, and identification of the person is necessary to safeguard the health of the public. Such cases are to be heard in the absence of the public. A medical practitioner or other person who, without reasonable excuse, fails to comply is guilty of an offence.
Under the Information Protection Principles contained in the NSW Privacy and Personal Information Act , which covers NSW public-sector agencies that hold personal information, can only disclose personal information in limited circumstances where the individual has consented to it. There are limited exemptions, which include when the person consents to disclosure and when disclosure is in connection with another law or legal proceedings which may arise, or there is some other lawful excuse.
Section 23 prohibits disclosure of HIV-related information identified during research unless an individual or the Health Minister approves such disclosure. Disclosure of such information relevant to proceedings may be compelled by the Governor.
Public Health Act Sections 77 to 81 state among other things that a person must not directly or indirectly disclose confidential information unless with the written consent of the person to whom the information relates, to prevent or minimise the transmission of HIV including contact tracing , in the public interest, for public health purpose, or unless authorised under an Act or another law.
For a list of all circumstances in which disclosure is permitted, refer to s Under the Health Privacy Principles contained in this legislation , which applies to both public and private organisations that hold health information, health information can only be used or disclosed for the primary purpose of its collection or a directly related secondary purpose which the individual would reasonably expect.
Health information can only be used or disclosed for a non-related purpose in some circumstances, such as when there's a serious risk to someone or the information is needed to evaluate the service you received.
The Act continues to provide a long list of exceptions. Those of greatest relevance to the clinical management of HIV include disclosure with the consent of the person; as expressly authorised, permitted or required by law; in relation to criminal court proceedings; in the public interest defined by the Minister ; or in relation to the provision of health care where the information:.
In the event this is not the case, they are potentially civilly or criminally liable. Section states that a person who, without lawful authority, directly or indirectly, uses or discloses confidential information obtained by reason of any function that the person has, or at any time had, in the administration of this Act or the Health Miscellaneous Provisions Act Part XI commits an offence.
General practitioners should only collect health information about patients with their informed consent. It is usually reasonable to assume that consent is implied if the information is noted from details provided by the patient during a consultation, as long as it is clear the patient understands what information is being recorded and why. It is also vital to ensure that record keeping is thorough and accurate: both to ensure the best possible ongoing treatment of the patient and, in the worst-case scenario, to be used to support the practitioner should a patient attempt to make a case against a treating doctor for breach of privacy or confidentiality.
All medical procedures require informed consent. Practitioners need to appreciate the potential consequences and impact of an HIV diagnosis on a patient; although running tests and delivering diagnosis may be standard for the health-care practitioner, receiving the results may be anything but routine for the patient.
When offering a test to patients with low proficiency in English, an accredited interpreter should be used to ensure that the patient understands what they are being offered and has the opportunity to ask any questions. The Translating and Interpreting Service is available 24 hours, 7 days a week. Telephone interpreting is usually well accepted because it allows patients to maintain anonymity.
Patients are not able to consent to the use of their information if they are unclear about how the information will be used and why. If possible, patients should be advised of the use of their information when it is collected, which can occur through usual communications during a regular consultation. Patients should also be informed of circumstances in which personal information may be shared or disclosed.
In the case of PD , a doctor correctly refused to give test results to one partner in a couple who had attended a joint consultation. In that case, a couple attended and jointly requested HIV tests. PD later contracted HIV infection from her partner. This case demonstrates the importance of clarifying at the outset how personal health information will be used and disclosed and of obtaining the patient's consent to do so.
If it had been made clear to each party about the need to share HIV test results and consent therefore sought to do so, the doctor could have made the disclosure based on the principle of patient consent. It was found that the hospital had breached the health privacy principles by releasing the information that related to the mother to the father, and also that the hospital failed to ensure the security of the health information against unauthorised use and disclosure.
This may be relevant in the context of HIV as there are often couples who are both receiving care at the same practice. It is important that their health information each be recorded separately on their own files and thoroughly reviewed if requests of release of information have been made.
In developing Australian privacy laws, the right to individual privacy has been weighed against the rights of others and against matters that benefit society as a whole. The Privacy Act provides exceptions to privacy where use or disclosure is required by law. HIV is a notifiable disease in all Australian states and territories. Where the law requires disclosure of confidential information, there can be no action for breach of confidence. Patients are entitled to access their health records, except for a limited number of important exceptions outlined under Australian Privacy Principle 12 , for example, if the request for access is frivolous or vexatious or the record-keeper is required or authorised to refuse that access by law.
Should a patient wish to access their own record, details of the identity of any contacts contained in their record should be redacted. A range of laws apply to the storage of health information. Health agencies should have in place:. Multidisciplinary treating teams are common practice in Australian health care. Health care practitioners work together and share necessary information to deliver optimum health care.
All transfers of information without the knowledge of the patient require careful consideration. Therefore, it is advisable to tell a patient being treated by a multidisciplinary team how this will affect the handling of his or her health information and to gain patient consent so that implied consent is not relied upon.
All staff must be aware of their obligations, and systems must be in place for protecting patient privacy. Health information is considered sensitive information under the Privacy Act, and so greater protections apply to that information than to general personal information.
Use and disclosure of health information is defined in the Privacy Act under APP6 , which states that an organisation must not use or disclose personal information about an individual for a purpose other than the primary purpose of collection except for a number of limited circumstances. Such circumstances include the following:. When determining the primary purpose for which information was collected, health service providers should recognise that some individuals want to use health services in particular and limited ways.
For example, the individual who goes to a sexual health centre seeking assistance in relation only to specific sexual health issues may have high expectations of privacy and confidentiality. Expectation is more than awareness — telling someone about proposed secondary uses or disclosures may not necessarily create a reasonable expectation.
A health service provider should consider the kind of person they are talking to, what his or her understanding is likely to be and therefore what he or she may reasonably expect. These may generally be summarised as:. It is strongly recommended that practitioners familiarise themselves with the Australian Privacy Principles which are legally binding and contact the Office of the Information Commissioner if they wish to clarify the manner in which the Australian Privacy Principles might relate to specific situations.
If in doubt, legal advice should be sought from a legal practitioner. In addition to obligations imposed under relevant privacy legislation, there are various provisions in state and territory health legislation relating to confidentiality of health information summarised below.
Second, we report the prevalence of confidentiality concerns and having spent time alone with a health-care provider by demographic, SEP, and sexual experience and education characteristics. Consent, medical treatment and health records in hospital When you go to hospital, you can choose to give the staff access to your health records. Nutrition for life Mens nutrition for life. Instead, these results indicate that greater efforts are needed to support health-care providers in educating parents about the value of time alone and confidential care for their adolescent, and building policy and programmatic supports for including this during adolescent and young adult health-care visits. We will always endeavour to collect information from you directly, however in some cases we may collect information about you from others.
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Explanatory Memorandums, explaining each component of the final Acts, can be found on the ComLaw website. The new Act is available on the ComLaw website. Amendments to the Allocation Principles that support the delivery of these red tape reduction measures are expected to be registered shortly. Once registered, they will be available on the ComLaw website.
A number of principles made under the Aged Care Act have been amended or created and commenced on 1 July Explanatory statements, explaining each component of the principles, can also be found on the ComLaw website. The Department of Health has produced other resources to help understand and interpret legislation in aged care. These include:. Approved providers should use these to identify their responsibilities and obligations under the Act. Skip to navigation Skip to content Search Search.
Greater efforts are needed to support young Americans in receiving confidential care. Leading U. They specifically recommend that adolescent patients spend time alone with their provider and that providers do not disclose protected information to parents or guardians [ 1 — 5 ].
These recommendations are based on the idea that the provision of confidential care encourages adolescents to share sensitive information with health-care providers [ 6 — 8 ], and thus improve quality of care. Adolescents with concerns about confidentiality are more likely to forgo health-care services, particularly with regard to sexual and reproductive health SRH [ 9 — 13 ]. One study using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health found that girls who ever had sexual intercourse, did not use birth control at last sex, and had a prior sexually transmitted infection STI had greater odds of reporting having forgone care due to confidentiality concerns [ 14 ].
Another national study found that almost one third of insured adolescents receiving services at publicly funded family planning centers did not plan to use insurance to cover their visit because of concerns about confidentiality [ 15 ]. Most previous studies were conducted before implementation of the Affordable Care Act.
However, an unintended consequence of this effort may be breaches of health-care confidentiality, because a billing practice called explanation of benefits provides a detailed statement to the policy holder i.
Only two states have adopted confidentiality provisions specific to explanation of benefits [ 20 ]. In response to these concerns, the — National Survey of Family Growth NSFG included new questions about confidential health care among adolescents and young adults.
One report analyzing these data found that female respondents who expressed confidentiality concerns were less likely to have received any sexual health service SRH in the past year compared to those not reporting such concerns; there was no association among male respondents [ 21 ]. Among both adolescent girls and boys, those who had spent time alone with a provider at their most recent health-care visit in the last year were more likely to have received any SRH services compared to those who did not [ 21 ].
However, this measure of SRH services included Pap smear and pelvic examination, which are not recommended routine services for adolescents and young women; the measure also included STI testing, the use of which may be affected differently by confidentiality concerns compared to contraceptive services. It is possible, then, that associations found in the study were weaker than looking at contraceptive services alone.
Another report found that among to year-old women who had ever had sex, confidentiality concern was associated with being less likely to have had a chlamydia test in the past year, but there was no association with STI testing among to year-old sexually experienced men [ 22 ]. That analysis also found that among to year-old girls, time alone with a provider was associated with having had a chlamydia test [ 22 ]. Neither of these studies examined variation in experiences beyond gender and age.
Data for this cross-sectional, descriptive study come from the to NSFG, a survey that has been administered periodically since to assess U. It uses a multistage probability sample designed to represent the U. Adolescent, black, and Latino participants are oversampled; sampling weights are adjusted to account for these unequal probabilities of selection and differential response and coverage rates [ 23 ].
This study was exempt from Institutional Review Board review, given the de-identified nature of this publicly available data. Of these, 2, In total, 1, adolescents Receipt of at least one contraceptive service in the past year was a dichotomous measure of females aged 15—25 reporting having received none or one or more of the following services: birth control counseling, a checkup or test for birth control, a contraceptive method or prescription, emergency contraception counseling, or emergency contraception.
Thirty-eight respondents who reported having no mother figure were excluded from the analyses. Second, we report the prevalence of confidentiality concerns and having spent time alone with a health-care provider by demographic, SEP, and sexual experience and education characteristics.
Prevalence of confidentiality concern was substantially different for the two age groups; therefore, we examine to year-olds and to year-olds separately. We report time alone with a provider separately for to year-old boys and girls because previous research has suggested that factors associated with this experience differ by type and magnitude between genders [ 25 ].
Third, we report the percent of sexually experienced female respondents who received at least one contraceptive service in the past year by whether they had time alone with a provider at their last health-care visit to year-olds and whether they reported that they would avoid SRH care because their parents might find out to and to year-olds. The analysis is limited to female respondents who reported ever having sexual intercourse because they would be most likely to need such care in the past year.
All analyses were conducted with data weighted using the complex sample svy command in Stata Only a few other characteristics were associated with to year-olds reporting confidentiality concerns. Relative risk of reporting they would ever not go for sexual or reproductive health care because their parents might find out among U. Relative risk of having time alone with a provider at last health-care visit in the past year among U.
Among boys, prior receipt of formal or informal sex education was not associated with having spent time alone with a provider. In contrast, among both sexually experienced adolescent and young adult women, confidentiality concerns were associated with a significantly reduced likelihood of having received a contraceptive service.
For both age groups, these associations remained significant in the adjusted models. Regressions of receipt of contraceptive services in the past year among women 15—17 and 18—25 years old who had ever had sex, NSFG — Despite increases in health insurance coverage among young adults in recent years [ 17 ], and broad support from medical professionals regarding the importance of confidential SRH care for minors, this study documents continued barriers to confidential health care for young Americans.
This is consistent with a previous study that found adolescent girls in family planning clinics with mothers that had graduated high school were more likely to say their parents knew they were at the clinic compared to those with college-graduate mothers [ 10 ].
It is also possible that some lower SEP youth use services that are more likely to guarantee confidential care, such as Title X facilities, and therefore are less concerned their parents will find out. More research would be needed to explore these and other possible explanations. Adolescents not living with either parent, on the other hand, appear to be at increased risk of reporting confidentiality concerns.
It may be that minors living in other family structures have particularly low communication or trust with guardians in regard to SRH issues, leading to greater confidentiality concerns. This finding underscores the importance of policies ensuring confidential care because some adolescents may be in particularly vulnerable circumstances.
Disadvantaged adolescents were less likely to have time alone with a health-care provider during their last visit. This may reflect differences in the types of health-care facilities used or services requested by lower compared to higher SEP adolescents. For example, in one study of clinic-based primary care providers, the odds of having time alone with a provider was three times higher if the adolescent patient was presenting with a sex complaint [ 24 ].
Even though lower SEP teens are less likely to report SRH confidentiality concerns, all teens should get time alone with their health provider as they may be unwilling to discuss any number of health issues, some unrelated to SRH, if a parent is present. Neither receipt of formal instruction about birth control methods or SRH information from parents was associated with concerns about confidentiality. Female adolescents who had discussions with parents about more SRH topics were more likely to have had time alone with their health-care provider at their last visit, but this relationship did not hold for boys.
Regardless of age, sexually experienced women with confidentiality concerns were less likely to have received any contraceptive services in the past year. Among both to year-old girls and to year-old women, reporting confidentiality concern was strongly and robustly associated with a lower likelihood of having received any contraceptive services in the past year, even after controlling for a range of characteristics.
These findings are consistent with and complement recent analyses of these data, finding that women with confidentiality concerns were less like to have obtained any SRH services [ 21 ], and less likely to have had a chlamydia test specifically [ 22 ].
These results indicate that concerns about confidentiality may deter both adolescent and young adult women from obtaining contraceptive services, and therefore is an important consideration for policies and programs focusing on reducing unintended pregnancy. In this study we found that Medicaid-covered youth were less likely to report confidentiality concerns, suggesting the importance of programs that explicitly guarantee confidential care for adolescent access to SRH care.
However, at least one state, Texas, has requested permission to use federal Medicaid funds to support a family planning program that is currently state-funded and that requires minors to obtain consent from a parent or guardian to obtain SRH services, even though parental consent has never been permitted for family planning care under Medicaid [ 29 ].
Still, if this Medicaid policy change, or ones similar to it, were to be implemented, it would impact the most vulnerable teens, who might forgo needed contraception and STI services if they could not get them confidentially. Instead, these results indicate that greater efforts are needed to support health-care providers in educating parents about the value of time alone and confidential care for their adolescent, and building policy and programmatic supports for including this during adolescent and young adult health-care visits.
Many young people may experience barriers to confidential reproductive health services. Policies requiring parental consent for reproductive health care would impose a barrier for adolescents, who might forgo services if they could not obtain them confidentially.
Personal information collected may include your name, address, date of birth, gender, some medical history, information about your illnesses, symptoms, disabilities, your ethnic background and sexual practice if relevant to your health or provision of the services and any other information required in order for us to provide you with:.
Personal information may be collected when you, or someone on your behalf, contact the Department via the My Aged Care Website or Contact Centre to access or request information on services, send an email, fax, letter or complete an online or paper form. By providing your personal information to us including any sensitive information about you, e. More information on who we disclose information to is below. You may choose to deal with the Department anonymously or by providing a pseudonym.
If you wish to remain anonymous when dealing with the Contact Centre, please advise the call operator assisting you. Providing your personal details enables the Department to provide you with a client record and reference number which allows you, and other authorised persons, to retrieve information about that call at a later date. If you choose not to provide your personal information when you call the Contact Centre or use the Website e.
The Department may also record information about health services to be provided to you in the future or your wishes about the future provision of Services. You may be required to provide your postcode when using the search function on the Website in order to locate a Service near you. However this information is not stored by the Department unless you register for a client record with My Aged Care.
The Department may collect personal information about you from a third party in order to provide you with the services you need. For example this may be from a GP, a residential aged care facility, an aged care provider, an assessment worker or any other health professional who is referring you for assessment or aged care services.
The Department may also collect information about you from a family member, friend or other person who is providing you with care and who contacts us on your behalf. If the Department collects your personal information from someone else, reasonable steps will be taken to:. If you are contacting the Department on behalf of another person, we will also collect some personal information about you, including your name, contact details and your relationship to the person being referred.
The Department may share your information with providers of Services such as an assessment worker, an aged care provider, a residential care facility which is managing your care, a hospital or a health professional. We may also share your information with your family member, friend or other person who is providing you with care if they are authorised to receive your personal information.
We may disclose your personal information to someone who is authorised to conduct your affairs if you become incapacitated. The Department may contact you for feedback on your satisfaction with the Services. Your email address will only be used for the purpose for which you have provided it.
When we disclose your personal information to third parties, we make all reasonable efforts to ensure we disclose only relevant information and that it is accurate, complete and up to date. We will not sell or rent your personal information to anyone and will not transfer your information overseas unless you ask us to do so. The My Aged Care website does not store your personal information. Information that is collected on the website is stored in the My Aged Care system which can only be accessed by authorised people.
The Department has systems and procedures in place to protect your personal information from misuse and loss, and from unauthorised access, modification or disclosure. The Website has been tested to an advanced level of site security. However, users are advised that there are inherent risks in transmitting information across the internet, including the risk that information sent to or from a website may be intercepted, corrupted or modified by third parties.
If you have any security concerns, or if you wish to provide personal information by other means e. The Department has processes in place to ensure records of your personal information remain accurate, complete and up to date, including by verifying the information with you each time you use the Services, and from other sources. If you learn that personal information we hold about you is inaccurate, incomplete or not up to date, please contact the Department so we can promptly update our records.
If the Department refuses to provide you with access to your personal information or to update your record in the way you request, we will provide you with written reasons. If the Department refuses to correct or update your information, you may request a note be made on your record that you are of the opinion the information is inaccurate, incomplete, out of date, irrelevant or misleading, as the case may be.
The Department will not charge you for lodging a request for a copy of your personal information but we may ask you to pay a reasonable fee for the work involved in providing you with this information and for associated costs such as photocopying.
To improve your experience on our site, we may use 'cookies'. Cookies are an industry standard, and most major websites use them. When you visit this site, the Department of Health makes a record of your visit and logs the following information for statistical or systems administration purposes:. This information is analysed to show broken links in our website, bottlenecks, and other site problems. We use this information to maintain our site for your efficient use.
However, please note that if you do this, you may not be able to use the full functionality of this website. Our website uses Google Analytics, a service which transmits website traffic data to Google servers in the United States.
Do you have to identify yourself? If the Department collects your personal information from someone else, reasonable steps will be taken to: confirm you have consented to us collecting your personal information; and let you know that personal information including notifying you of certain other matters under privacy law has been collected, will be taken. What will we do with your personal information?
Who your personal information may be shared with The Department may share your information with providers of Services such as an assessment worker, an aged care provider, a residential care facility which is managing your care, a hospital or a health professional. How do we protect your personal information? How do we store and maintain your personal information? How can you access and correct your personal information? The Department may be unable to give you a copy of your personal information if: it was provided anonymously; if the information contains details about other people; or if it would be unsafe to provide the personal information because it may lead to harm being done to another person.
Other websites This website contains links to other sites. Analytics To improve your experience on our site, we may use 'cookies'. When you visit this site, the Department of Health makes a record of your visit and logs the following information for statistical or systems administration purposes: the user's server address the user's top level domain name the date and time of access to the site pages accessed and documents downloaded the previous site visited type of browser used This information is analysed to show broken links in our website, bottlenecks, and other site problems.
All cookies will be immediately lost when you end your Internet session or shut down your computer. Our copy of your information will be automatically deleted 20 minutes after you last used the system. This information is only used to help you use our website systems more efficiently, not to track your movements through the Internet, or to record private information about you.
Persistent cookies These exist for a defined period of time usually beyond the termination of the current session before expiring. Contact us If you have ideas about how we can improve the content and usability of this website, or have a privacy complaint or concern, you can contact us via the Contact us page.
Last reviewed: April