How odd. The tiny dote, she explained, was indeed with a neighbour. I gave her an encouraging smile. Then she got out her phone and proudly showed me a snapshot of her bundle of joy, on Instagram, of course. It was only when chatter turned to nipple cream, and how it serves wonderfully as lip balm, that her contributions to the conversation dried up.
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Recipe: Beefy Dog Treat Biscuits. Temperatures: 65f libes 80f For this same Adult males lives as a pet, a taller tank is recommended than the traditional aquarium shape. How to Make Whitening Dog Shampoo. This is unfair to the cats, adjacent land owners, park maintenance staff and our native Ls butts. Our goal here is to help pett make informed decisions so you can pick out the leopard gecko pet that works best for you. The material is durable yet gentle. Chopped apple pieces and freeze-dried shrimp can be offered periodically. The microfiber inner padding holds significant amount of liquid while keeping the dog drier and more comfortable. Store-bought Kibble.
We love our pets.
- Gerbils make great pets for younger children, as they are active by day and extremely curious and friendly!
- Yellow-bellied sliders Trachemys scripta scripta are aquatic turtles.
- In this article we will go over male vs female leopard gecko behavior, their differences, and what you can expect out of them.
- Welcome to Xanje!
The cat Felis catus is a small carnivorous mammal. About 60 cat breeds are recognized by various cat registries. The cat is similar in anatomy to the other felid species, has a strong flexible body, quick reflexes, sharp teeth and retractable claws adapted to killing small prey.
Its night vision and sense of smell are well developed. Cat communication includes vocalizations like meowing , purring , trilling , hissing, growling and grunting as well as cat-specific body language. It is a solitary hunter, but a social species. It can hear sounds too faint or too high in frequency for human ears, such as those made by mice and other small mammals.
It is a predator that is most active at dawn and dusk. Female domestic cats can have kittens from spring to late autumn, with litter sizes ranging from two to five kittens. Failure to control breeding of pet cats by spaying and neutering , as well as abandonment of pets, resulted in large numbers of feral cats worldwide, contributing to the extinction of entire bird species, and evoking population control. It was long thought that cat domestication was initiated in Egypt, because cats in ancient Egypt were venerated since around BC.
As of , the domestic cat was the second-most popular pet in the U. The origin of the English word 'cat', Old English catt , is thought to be the Late Latin word cattus , which was first used at the beginning of the 6th century. It is "equally likely that the forms might derive from an ancient Germanic word, imported into Latin and thence to Greek and to Syriac and Arabic".
The English puss , extended as pussy and pussycat , is attested from the 16th century and may have been introduced from Dutch poes or from Low German puuskatte , related to Swedish kattepus , or Norwegian pus , pusekatt. The etymology of this word is unknown, but it may have simply arisen from a sound used to attract a cat.
The scientific name Felis catus was proposed by Carl Linnaeus in for a domestic cat. The same commission ruled that the domestic cat is a distinct taxon Felis catus. The domestic cat is a member of the Felidae, a family that had a common ancestor about 10—15 million years ago. This line of partially domesticated cats leaves no trace in the domestic cat populations of today.
The earliest known indication for a tamed African wildcat was excavated close by a human grave in Shillourokambos , southern Cyprus, dating to about 9, to 9, years before present. As there is no evidence of native mammalian fauna on Cyprus, the inhabitants of this Neolithic village most likely brought the cat and other wild mammals to the island from the Middle Eastern mainland.
This commensal relationship between early farmers and tamed cats lasted thousands of years. As agricultural practices spread, so did tame and domesticated cats. Greek, Phoenician , Carthaginian and Etruscan traders introduced domestic cats to southern Europe. During domestication, cats have undergone only minor changes in anatomy and behavior, and they are still capable of surviving in the wild.
Several natural behaviors and characteristics of wildcats may have preadapted them for domestication as pets. These traits include their small size, social nature, obvious body language, love of play and relatively high intelligence. Captive Leopardus cats may also display affectionate behavior toward humans, but were not domesticated.
Development of cat breeds started in the mid 19th century. Genetic diversity of these breeds varies between regions, and is lowest in purebred populations, which show more than 20 deleterious genetic disorders. The domestic cat has a smaller skull and shorter bones than the European wildcat. Males are larger than females. Cats have seven cervical vertebrae as do most mammals ; 13 thoracic vertebrae humans have 12 ; seven lumbar vertebrae humans have five ; three sacral vertebrae as do most mammals, but humans have five ; and a variable number of caudal vertebrae in the tail humans have only vestigial caudal vertebrae, fused into an internal coccyx.
Attached to the spine are 13 ribs, the shoulder, and the pelvis. The cat skull is unusual among mammals in having very large eye sockets and a powerful specialized jaw. When it overpowers its prey, a cat delivers a lethal neck bite with its two long canine teeth , inserting them between two of the prey's vertebrae and severing its spinal cord , causing irreversible paralysis and death.
These are vital in feeding, since cats' small molars cannot chew food effectively, and cats are largely incapable of mastication. The cat is digitigrade. It walks on the toes, with the bones of the feet making up the lower part of the visible leg. It registers directly by placing each hind paw close to the track of the corresponding fore paw, minimizing noise and visible tracks. This also provides sure footing for hind paws when navigating rough terrain. As it speeds up walking to trotting, its gait changes to a "diagonal" gait: the diagonally opposite hind and fore legs move simultaneously.
Cats have protractable and retractable claws. This keeps the claws sharp by preventing wear from contact with the ground and allows the silent stalking of prey. The claws on the fore feet are typically sharper than those on the hind feet. They may extend their claws in hunting or self-defense, climbing, kneading , or for extra traction on soft surfaces. Most cats have five claws on their front paws, and four on their rear paws.
The dewclaw is proximal to the other claws. More proximally is a protrusion which appears to be a sixth "finger". This special feature of the front paws, on the inside of the wrists has no function in normal walking, but is thought to be an antiskidding device used while jumping.
Some breeds of cats are prone to polydactyly. Polydactylous cats occur along North America' northeast coast and in Great Britain. Cats have excellent night vision and can see at only one-sixth the light level required for human vision. The domestic cat has slit pupils , which allow it to focus bright light without chromatic aberration. However, this appears to be an adaptation to low light levels rather than representing true trichromatic vision. It can hear a range of It can detect ultrasound , which enables it to detect ultrasonic calls made by rodent prey.
Cats have an acute sense of smell, due in part to their well-developed olfactory bulb and a large surface of olfactory mucosa , about 5. It allows them to sense certain aromas in a way that humans cannot. Cats are sensitive to pheromones such as 3-mercaptomethylbutanol ,  which they use to communicate through urine spraying and marking with scent glands. Cats have relatively few taste buds compared to humans or so versus more than 9, on the human tongue.
To aid with navigation and sensation, cats have dozens of movable whiskers vibrissae over their body, especially their faces. These provide information on the width of gaps and on the location of objects in the dark, both by touching objects directly and by sensing air currents; they also trigger protective blink reflexes to protect the eyes from damage. Most breeds of cat have a noted fondness for sitting in high places, or perching.
A higher place may serve as a concealed site from which to hunt; domestic cats strike prey by pouncing from a perch such as a tree branch. Another possible explanation is that height gives the cat a better observation point, allowing it to survey its territory.
A cat falling from heights of up to 3 meters can right itself and land on its paws. This reflex is known as the cat righting reflex. Outdoor cats are active both day and night, although they tend to be slightly more active at night. Cats conserve energy by sleeping more than most animals, especially as they grow older. The daily duration of sleep varies, usually between 12 and 16 hours, with 13 and 14 being the average. Some cats can sleep as much as 20 hours.
The term " cat nap " for a short rest refers to the cat's tendency to fall asleep lightly for a brief period. While asleep, cats experience short periods of rapid eye movement sleep often accompanied by muscle twitches, which suggests they are dreaming.
The social behavior of the domestic cat ranges from widely dispersed individuals to feral cat colonies that gather around a food source, based on groups of co-operating females.
These territories are marked by urine spraying , by rubbing objects at head height with secretions from facial glands, and by defecation.
Outside these neutral areas, territory holders usually chase away stranger cats, at first by staring, hissing, and growling and, if that does not work, by short but noisy and violent attacks. Despite some cats cohabiting in colonies, they do not have a social survival strategy, or a pack mentality and always hunt alone.
However, some pet cats are poorly socialized. In particular, older cats show aggressiveness towards newly arrived kittens, which include biting and scratching; this type of behavior is known as feline asocial aggression. Life in proximity to humans and other domestic animals has led to a symbiotic social adaptation in cats, and cats may express great affection toward humans or other animals.
Ethologically , the human keeper of a cat functions as a sort of surrogate for the cat's mother. Their high-pitched sounds may mimic the cries of a hungry human infant, making them particularly difficult for humans to ignore. Domestic cats' scent rubbing behavior towards humans or other cats is thought to be a feline means for social bonding. The tail and ears are particularly important social signal mechanisms in cats.
A raised tail indicates a friendly greeting, and flattened ears indicates hostility. Tail-raising also indicates the cat's position in the group's social hierarchy , with dominant individuals raising their tails less often than subordinate ones. Purring may have developed as an evolutionary advantage as a signalling mechanism of reassurance between mother cats and nursing kittens. Post-nursing cats often purr as a sign of contentment: when being petted, becoming relaxed,   or eating.
The mechanism by which cats purr is elusive. The cat has no unique anatomical feature that is clearly responsible for the sound. Cats are known for spending considerable amounts of time licking their coats to keep them clean. These contain keratin which makes them rigid  so the papillae act like a hairbrush. Some cats, particularly longhaired cats, occasionally regurgitate hairballs of fur that have collected in their stomachs from grooming.
Hairballs can be prevented with remedies that ease elimination of the hair through the gut , as well as regular grooming of the coat with a comb or stiff brush.
Among domestic cats, males are more likely to fight than females. In such cases, most fights are won by the heavier male. Neutering will decrease or eliminate this behavior in many cases, suggesting that the behavior is linked to sex hormones.
A link has been sent to your friend's email address. Email it to a friend! They stated that while some packages worked well, others were more prone to leaking. Please enter your name here. How Big: Adult males: 2. Worms are another food option for most frog species. A Poodle or Poodle mix may be the best dog for you.
Adult males lives as a pet. What types of frogs make suitable pets?
What type of habitats do frogs need to survive? Setting up a frog habitat What do different species of frogs eat? Keeping a pet frog healthy Learn about endangered frogs. Pacman Frog The Pacman Frog or the ornate horned frog is one of the largest frogs you can purchase for a pet. Per Tank: One Pacman frog per tank cannibalism is possible. Growth Rate: They will be fully grown at 1.
How Big: Adult males: 2. Adult Females: inches cm. Tank Size: gal L for babies. Temperatures: In captivity these frogs will enjoy air temperatures around 65 to 85F c.
Lighting: Low light requirements with filtered light for day night cycle. No direct UV is needed if vitamin D is supplemented into the diet. Substrate: Always damp and deep enough to fully burrow into.
Avoid loose substrate for small frogs to avoid impaction if it is accidentally consumed. Larger frogs can usually work through it. Towels can work well as substrate until the grow larger. Water: Add a water dish the frog can soak in but never be fully submerged in. Plants: By adding live plants it not only provides the needed hiding places for your frog, but also helps clean the tank naturally. Feeding: Juveniles should be fed once every two days.
Coat the food in calcium two or three times a week. Adults can be fed once or twice a week and food should be coated in calcium once week. Appropriate size crickets and roaches should be a staple part of the diet. Not Dead: In dry and cool conditions they can enter a state of brumation deep sleep and not eat. They might also encase themselves in thick skin to protect them until conditions improve. Mainly because they have teeth and can bite but also because they have sensitive skin.
Tomato Frog The Tomato Frog originates from Madagascar and has an average lifespan of six to eight years. Obtaining One: One breed of tomato frog, Dyscophus antongilli is endangered and protected so to be safe, only obtain a tomato frog if it is bred in captivity. Growth Rate: They will be adult size within a 1 year for males and a minimum of 2 years for females How Big: Males can grow up to 2. Females can grow up to inches cm. Tank Size: a 10 gallon 38L tank at minimum for an adult size frog.
Babies can live in smaller reptile kits. Temperatures: 65f and 80f Lighting: Low light requirements but best to supplement diet with vitamin D if no direct UV is added. Provide 12 to 14 hours or daytime in summer months and 8 to 10 hours of daytime in the winter months. Improve humidity by misting every one to three days and by keeping the substrate moist but not wet. Water: A water dish is a good low maintenance solution to providing moisture and humidity. The dish should not be too deep though.
Habitat: At least 2 inches 5cm of substrate to allow burrowing. For hiding, plants live or fake and hollow logs. For added happiness, add a few branches or rocks for climbing. Feeding: Crickets and night crawlers are a staple to the diet.
Treats can include small worms such as waxworms. Add calcium powder two or three times a week for juveniles and once per week for adult frogs. It will puff up and then begin to secrete a milky substance that can cause skin irritation. Per Tank: adult fire bellied toads per 10 gal tank 38L. Larger frogs may be aggressive towards smaller ones. How Big: These frogs will grow between How Old: They can live from years or more.
Habitat: A semi-aquatic habitat is needed. Water: Water areas can be achieved by providing a large water dish. The depth should be no deeper than what would allow for a frog to sit and relax in the water. Substrate: Avoid gravel that can be accidentally consumed while the frogs eat.
Mosses and coconut husks work well to retain moisture and provide humidity. The depth should be deep enough to allow for full burrowing of the frogs. Temperatures: Fire belly frogs do better than many breeds in periods of colder temperatures. However, they prefer F c in the day and F Lighting: Low light requirements with no basking needed.
No direct UVB light is needed. A day night night schedule is needed however. Humidity: These frogs love humidity. To increase humidity use substrates that retain moisture and avoid tank tops that are all screen. Feeding: As insectivorous eaters they enjoy crickets, mealworms and as a treat, small guppies occasionally.
Occasionally add calcium powder onto the frogs food. Handling: This bred has a better temperament to be held than most frogs but still have sensitive skin and should only be handled occasionally and always with clean hands. Per Tank: One white tree frog also known as a dumpy frog can live in a 10 gallon tank 38 Liters. However these frogs are social and prefer to live in groups. Four frogs should have a minimum of 20 gallons 76 Liters. Cannibalism is possible as well so only keep similar size frogs in the same tank.
Growth Rate: Females can grow to Males are typically slightly smaller. Juveniles at pet stores are often around 2 inches 5cm. Temperatures: Daytime temperatures should be in the mid 80s 85F 29C and nighttime temperatures should dip down to 70F 21C.
Lighting: Low lighting needs are required with no need for UV light. A day night cycle should be used however. Twelve on and twelve off is a good cycle. Handling: This frog breed has a good temperament and will tolerate being handled rather well.
Always wash your hands before and after handling them. Moisture retaining substrate, water dishes and spray bottle misting will help keep humidity up. A non-screen lid will also help keep humidity up but the lid should also have plenty of ventilation holes. Water: A water dish should not be any deeper than the frogs in the tank. They should be able to easily sit and rest in the water dish without having its head submerged. Habitat: white dumpy tree frogs and climbers and will thrive in an environment that has lots of branches.
For this same reason, a taller tank is recommended than the traditional aquarium shape. Feeding: Feed them as many crickets and earth worms as they can eat in minutes. Waxworms and meal worms are good for occasional treats. Adults should be fed 2 to 3 times per week while juveniles should be feed daily or every other day. They do need to breathe air though. Tank Mates: These frogs are social and prefer to live in groups. Temperatures: They prefer warm but not too warm of water around 75F 24C.
Feeding: African dwarf frogs like bloodworms and other freeze dried critters. They also like eating small living animals like tiny guppies.
If you house them with fish, hand feeding them with long tweezers will ensure they actually get food. Hiding: These frogs will do well in an environment that offers plenty of places to hide. Providing tunnels, caves and plants live or plastic can offer them great places to hide. This is their defensive posture.
When you see this behavior, it means your gecko is spooked or scared. Male leopard gecko will also do a different rattlesnake shake. This rapid tail-tip shake is their mating call. You will often hear this rapid tail shake from males when they first reach sexual maturity or during the breeding season.
This is completely normal, you should not be alarmed. If you have multiple leopard geckos in the same tank, hearing the rapid tail shake means the male is interested in courting the female.
This rapid tail shake can also be seen when they are hunting, often seconds before the gecko strikes at its food. Both male and female can shake their tail like this when they are excited during feed time.
One clear advantage to female leopard gecko is their ability to be housed with other females. While leopard geckos are solitary creatures, female leopard geckos can be housed together given equal size, similar temperament, and large enough tank with double the hides required. In a standard 20 gallon long tank, you can usually house 2 female leopard geckos successfully. In a 40 gallon tank, you can house You will not be able to house multiple males in the same tank.
Housing male with females is not recommended unless you are breeding. Male and female are best housed separately. This advantage is attractive to hobbyists because many gecko hobbyists enjoy housing more than 1 gecko in their tank. Male leopard geckos have the advantage of less health issues.
Males are known to live over 15 years with proper care, with some living well past 25 years of age. Females however average years. Every year female leopard geckos will ovulate between January and July, during which time they eat very little.
They can produce infertile eggs without mating with a male. It usually occurs to first time breeders, females carrying infertile eggs, and females who had egg-binding issues before.
Male leopard geckos live longer with proper care, have less health related issues, and their behaviors are more stable. In general leopard geckos get more docile as they get older.
We love our pets. Two thirds of Americans live with an animal, and according to a Harris poll, 90 percent of pet owners think of their dogs and cats as members of the family. These relationships have benefits. For example, in a survey by the American Animal Hospital Association, 40 percent of married female dog owners reported they received more emotional support from their pet than from their husband or their kids.
He writes the blog "Animals and Us" for Psychology Today magazine. Newspaper editors tell me stories about animal abuse often generate more responses from upset readers than articles about violence directed toward humans. But do Americans really care more about pets than people? Take, for example, police shootings. Because of high profile incidents like the death last week of Walter Scott in Charleston, South Carolina, and, of course, the case of Michael Brown in Ferguson, Missouri, death-by-cop is in the news.
But, as is illustrated by two shootings that took place within 24 hours last year in Idaho , it is not always the case that we value people over pets. On July 8, , Jeanetta Riley, pregnant and a mother of two, was killed by police officers outside a hospital in Sandpoint, Idaho. Riley reportedly had a history of drug addiction and alcoholism, and she was drunk, incoherent, and waving a filet knife at the three police officers who showed up at the hospital.
A dashboard video camera mounted on one of the police cars shows that Riley was at least 10 feet from the cops when they opened fire. Why the police opted to shoot Riley rather than zap a pound woman with one of the Tasers they were carrying is unclear. Jones had rolled the windows part-way down so the dog would stay cool. Unfortunately, when the two-year old black Lab mix started barking, someone called the cops. Officer Dave Kelly caught the call. This time the media did respond. As The Guardian article indicates, the mismatch between the public outrage over the shootings of a dog and a pregnant mom a mere 14 hours and 50 miles apart is striking.
But was this an aberration? In the wake of Ferguson and now South Carolina, police shootings of human beings have been big news. Do the tragic cases of Jeanetta Riley and Arfee support the view that our love of animals trumps our concern for people?
Two sociologists at Northeastern University have tested the claim that people are more upset by news stories of animal abuse than they are about attacks directed toward humans. The researchers, Arnold Arluke, an authority on human-animal relationships, and Jack Levin, an expert on serial killers and mass murders, had college students read fake news accounts on a crime wave in Boston. Arriving on the scene a few minutes after the attack, a police officer found the victim with one broken leg, multiple lacerations, and unconscious.
No arrests have been made in the case. The subjects in the experiment did not know the articles were bogus. Nor did they know that there were actually four slightly different versions of the newspaper articles, each portraying a different victim: a puppy, an adult dog, a human infant, or a human adult. After they read one of the four news stories, each subject completed a scale which measured how much empathy and emotional distress they felt for the victim of the beating.
Arluke and Levin reported the results of their study at the meeting of the American Sociological Association. As you might guess, the story in which the victim was a human adult elicited, by far, the lowest levels of emotional distress in the readers.
The puppy, however, came in a close second with the adult dog not far behind. Arluke and Levin concluded that species is important when it comes to generating sympathy with the downtrodden. But they argued that the critical difference in responses to the stories was based on our special concern for creatures that are innocent and defenseless.
In another experiment, psychologists at Georgia Regents University also explored circumstances in which people value animals over human lives. In the study, individuals were asked who they would save in a series of hypothetical scenarios in which a dog and a person were in the path of an out-of-control bus. The researchers found that decisions to save the person or the dog were affected by three factors.
The first: who the person in danger was. The subjects were much more likely to save the dog over a foreign tourist than, say, their best friend or a sibling. The second factor was the dog. Forty percent of participants said they would save their personal pet at the expense of a foreign tourist. In the run-away-bus scenario, female subjects were nearly twice as likely as males to say they would save a dog over a person. The bottom line is that, at least in some circumstances, we do value animals over people.
But the differences in public outrage over the deaths of Jeanetta Riley and Arfee illustrate a more general point. It is that our attitudes to other species are fraught with inconsistency. We share the earth with roughly 40, other kinds of vertebrate animals, but most of us only get bent out of shape over the treatment of a handful of species.
You know the ones: the big-eye baby seals, circus elephants, chimpanzees, killer whales at Sea World, etc. And while we deeply love our pets, there is little hue and cry over the 24 horses that die on race tracks in the United States each week, let alone the horrific treatment of the nine billion broiler chickens American consume annually.
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