We all know that grasslands are open areas, where trees are few and grasses are the dominant plants. But can you tell the difference between the different types of grasslands in Missouri? Grasslands, obviously, are grassy, open areas with few trees or none. Missouri has lots of land that fits this category, but these places are absolutely not all alike. How do ecologists distinguish among them?
Researchers study possible benefits of residential prairie gardens Nov 11, Francois St. Sign In. Credit: Sarah Hirsh. Prairei grasses are adapted to grazing by the American bison, also known as buffalo, and the grazing and trampling by former vast herds of these animals played a role in keeping Bite off my penis plants from becoming established. In fact, many plants and animals that live on native prairies and savannas cannot live anywhere else on earth.
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Related Articles. Example from the Hansard archive. I was Cojvert and want to know if this is bad for my health as the optimal level on the chart is around the mid range on the chart. Surface mining is subject to state and federal reclamation requirements, but Convert strip mine to prairie of the requirements is a constant source of contention. Well done Confert your Sakura x yue fanfictions too tl 12 pounds in 8 weeks is great! Key Point: Ketone test strips are a urinalysis tool. The test strips will show their most accurate reading after about 15 seconds, so anything after that will be unreliable. I have been on Keto for about a month and I have lost about 10 pounds. Taylor A R. Hi, i Convert strip mine to prairie been in keto diet for three stril when i started i felt terrible. A decision to move forward is expected in the summer or early fall. The impact of surface mining on the topography, vegetation, and water resources has made it highly controversial. The profound changes in topography and disturbance of pre-existing ecosystems have made mountaintop removal highly controversial. However, some studies show that the body gets more effective at using ketones for energy i. Categories : Surface mining Environmental impact of mining.
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- Surface mining , including strip mining , open-pit mining and mountaintop removal mining , is a broad category of mining in which soil and rock overlying the mineral deposit the overburden are removed, in contrast to underground mining , in which the overlying rock is left in place, and the mineral is removed through shafts or tunnels.
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Cattle grazed a grassy pasture here last summer. Next summer, these acres will be growing corn. I am watching a heavy-duty tandem disc break virgin prairie. Across the width of this implement are double rows of circular harrow blades, each one bigger than a dinner plate. The blades revolve over and over to penetrate and turn the ground.
The tandem disc is towed by a tractor that runs on tracks instead of tires, and it easily moves across the land despite sticky, slippery conditions. A man operating a nimble rock picker is plucking stones from unplowed areas. A growing pile of rock along a fence line on one side of the field is the collection point for the fruits of his labor. A dump truck, its bed filled with boulders, is mired down in mud.
The driver accelerates and tires spin. He idles the engine and waits for the rock picker to pull him free.
As I watch the dump truck rocking back and forth in the mud, I spot a colorful stone poking through unplowed earth. I grasp the top, wiggle it, and finally pull it free. The tractor and disc clatter by, making another long trip across the land. Behind them, native sod is neatly sliced and turned on its side or upside down in long strips. There is symmetry to the six-inch-deep cuts and the slabs of exposed soil, with glistening green grass on one side and dark dirt on the other.
After the disc is used a second time, more rock picking and digging will be done. Stones resting on the disked sod or partially buried near the surface of the soil can break a high- priced seed planter.
In this part of the world, rock removal is a vital part of prairie conversion. A third disking after that is an option. In a matter of several weeks, a prairie that evolved over thousands of years will have been completely and irretrievably undone.
Corn planting will take place in five months or so. Not too many years ago, pasture management and cattle grazing dominated land use here. It was the presence of so much stone that helped keep this land in grass. Uncertain precipitation and a shorter growing season than the rest of the corn belt also figured into land-use decision-making. When grain prices rose to remarkable heights, land values also increased — often at a jaw- dropping rate.
Just 20 years ago, this rocky property was valued at hundreds of dollars per acre. Farm sizes are multiplying, and the temptation to transition from cattle to corn has become almost irresistible.
Tax and land-use policies as well as incentives offered by lending agencies and institutions — all driven by high corn prices — also encourage the conversion of grasslands to grain. Inputs such as seed, fuel, fertilizers, and biocides remain spendy, shrinking per-acre profits and causing corn producers to expand the amount of land they plant to maintain revenues.
The landowner managing the conversion project I witnessed was reluctantly doing so. Not all farmers and grassland ranchers face the same challenges or express the same sentiment as the fellow I met. But the story of prairie conversion, no matter why or where, reveals an ongoing trend in agriculture that has less to do with stewardship and sustainability and more to do with the here and now of individual farmers taking advantage of business opportunities, including engaging in land-management decision-making focused by necessity on a bottom line that is determined by people residing far from our farmlands.
So much of what we do as a society begins with and results from what we choose to do with precious, irreplaceable land resources. The American conservation movement has engaged in a variety of meaningful causes.
Strip mining, clear cutting, dam building, well drilling, mountain top removal — each is a landuse issue warranting serious public discussion and scrutiny. But the systematic extermination of prairie, especially tallgrass prairie, has been a relatively quiet occurrence, and it has proceeded despite the efforts of a cadre of worried and enlightened activists.
Comprising more than 1. From an ecological perspective, grasslands provide a blend of habitats that nurture hundreds of species of flora and fauna.
Sportsmen understand the biological value of grasslands for upland birds. They also know that the related wetlands in the prairie pothole region are essential to healthy waterfowl populations throughout the continent. Grasslands and wetlands provide other significant environmental benefits, including biodiversity, water quality protection, aquifer recharge, flood control, soil maintenance, and carbon storage.
Unfortunately, we are entering what could be a death knell for tallgrass prairie. Prospects for saving crucial tracts of remaining tallgrass prairie — particularly grasslands owned by the private sector — are iffy, and recovering tallgrass through restoration hinges on landowners applying dramatically different approaches and considerations to land use.
In the early s, those brave enough to creep from the Appalachians onto the open, sun-soaked spaces of the North American prairie found fertile soils and hardly a rock to trip over. A thick tangle of grasses and forbs were anchored to rich sod, but an ox, a steel plow, and plenty of back-breaking labor could clear a modest field for planting saleable crops.
The easternmost portion of the grasslands — the tallgrass prairie stretching from Ohio to Dakota Territory — was homesteaded by ambitious settlers throughout the 19th century. Today, just 13 years later, those remnant and rare prairie lands are almost gone.
Consider the status of tallgrass prairie in Illinois. Today, only about 2, acres remain — less than one-hundredth of one percent. Iowa once held In neighboring Minnesota, 18 million acres of tallgrass could once be found; today there are only about , acres. While this land swap started a century and a half ago, it dramatically increased over the past decade, and we are now left to wonder whether such a land-use trade — so much prairie for so much corn and soybeans — has been worth it.
Christopher Wright and Dr. Michael Wimberly of the Geographic Information Science Center of Excellence at South Dakota State University released a report earlier this year that quantified the recent rate of prairie loss.
The two researchers interpreted land cover data to assess grassland destruction in the western region of the modern corn belt. Their findings indicated that grassland cover in that area declined by more than 1. Wright and Wimberly concluded that this reduction was due to expansion of fields planted to corn and soybeans.
Not since the s and s, wrote Wright and Wimberly, has prairie been so rapidly destroyed. Wright also reports that the conversion of prairie to row crops is happening not only to lands within the core area of the corn belt, but that the corn belt is pushing outward as well.
According to the two researchers, this is most evident in southern Iowa and the eastern Dakotas, where lands formerly used to grow grass are now producing corn. This type of land conversion is precisely what I witnessed. Research by Dr. Johnston, a professor at South Dakota State University, studied the conversion of prairie wetlands in the prairie pothole region to croplands.
She determined that during the past decade, wetlands in the region have been destroyed at a rate of 15, acres per year, and she cited high commodity prices and a significant drop in the number of acres enrolled in the Conservation Reserve Program CRP as key factors.
The rate of wetland destruction, cautions Johnston, is increasing. Research also shows that between and , tile and drainage applications and permits issued to farmers in the prairie pothole region of eastern North and South Dakota were relatively rare. Between and , for example, permits for tile and drainage projects to convert prairie wetlands to croplands numbered more than per year in just the eastern Dakotas.
Carter Johnson and I are hiking into a stand of switch grass higher than our eyes. Frogs croak, herons squawk. Overhead, a bright blue sky provides a background for waving grasses. So this is tallgrass, I think to myself. It feels dynamic and natural. Six years ago, dismayed by disappearing native prairie and hoping to provide an antidote to that environmental ailment, he and several colleagues founded an ecological-agricultural enterprise called EcoSun Prairie Farm.
On acres of land in southeast South Dakota that had prodigiously grown corn and soybeans for a century, Johnson and his fellow scientists cleared off the grain and began a careful process of restoring the land with indigenous plants.
Their mission was far more sophisticated than simply growing and preserving tallgrass prairie. Flowering forbs color the landscape with purples and yellows.
He shows me fields that are rich in mixtures and diversity of grasses and forbs, like the land naturally produced before row crops changed everything. On the spongy soil bordering wetlands, cord grass prospers. At EcoSun, wetlands drained and filled by previous farmers are being restored, and these offer yet another setting on the farm where Johnson utilizes natural conditions to grow optimal grasses.
More than a hundred species have taken root and are flourishing. We look at this as an example for others to follow, as a farming option that both protects resources and provides income. Typically, tallgrass prairie survives or is restored on marginal lands or in small parcels that are treated like precious heirlooms or as wildlife sanctuaries. Fields like the ones at EcoSun are usually off-limits to prairie restoration because growing corn or soybeans is the conventional approach to using fertile lands.
The biggest challenges to demonstrating the viability of the EcoSun farm, said Johnson, are public perception and economic issues.
Of course, we believe such a viewpoint needs to change. You have to have multiple income streams, just like traditional farms had. Those income streams at EcoSun include the sale of seed, hay, and grass-finished beef. Seed sales have been reliable and brisk, and hay sales benefitted from dwindling grass supplies in the region. Johnson says the best way to understand what is lost when prairie is plowed is to understand what is gained when prairie is saved or restored.
Tillage or even no-till have higher erosion rates than perennial grass farming, and this is especially true when you compare conventional tillage. Grass also protects groundwater because you use few or no fertilizers and biocides.
Everything you look at that has any connection to the environment is better off with grass versus row crops. According to Johnson, when prairie is plowed the negative impacts begin immediately. Carbon and organic matter in the soil — components of biomass and fertility — instantly decline as they are exposed to the elements. Not only is the natural fertility and health of the land diminished when prairie is plowed, exposed carbon can rise into the atmosphere, exacerbating climate change.
One study conducted by the United Nations concluded that corn and other biofuel crops grown on plowed grasslands fail to achieve a net reduction in greenhouse gasses due to CO2 emissions that occur when the grasslands are destroyed. Landuse practices, such as plowing grasslands, rank as the second leading cause of climate change.
Of course, losing grasslands is also harmful to wildlife.
Over time and as the body adapts to burning fat for fuel, it should become more adept at burning ketones for energy. But either way, it is the outcome that is most important. The original cabin was built by John and Agnes Cragg in the late s near Mazon, 10 miles to the southwest. You can probably guess the finer details, but if you want to know how to use ketone strips , the process looks like this;. For this reason, people are curious about whether they are doing enough via carb restriction to achieve this state.
Convert strip mine to prairie. Navigation menu
However, some studies show that the body gets more effective at using ketones for energy i. In such cases, since more ketones are burned by the body after adapting to a ketogenic diet, fewer would be left over to be picked up by the test strip. Hi i started the keto diet a week ago and lost 7 lbs woth no effort. Have been being very strict with trying not to eat over 20 carbs a day.
I bought the strips and every time i check i am on the large keto level. The very highest on the chart. I was alarmed and want to know if this is bad for my health as the optimal level on the chart is around the mid range on the chart.
Needing more sleep at night and headaches could be lack of energy are you getting enough food? Hi, i have been in keto diet for three week when i started i felt terrible.
Upset stomach low blood presure, headache and palpitations. Second week i was feeling good but today i feel terrible again. Palpitations have not go away sience fisrt day. Knomd hands, face and legs with little ants walking all over, feel like. My test strip is always shown large number of keatones. If you want to stay on the diet or a reasonably low carb plan, it might be worth increasing carbohydrates a little and seeing how you feel.
Otherwise; many people feel symptoms during the first few weeks of a ketogenic diet, and this is often from a lack of electrolytes magnesium, potassium, sodium. This was a very helpful, informative article for the average learning how to navigate the Ketogenic diet strategy guy. But your information gives me some understanding that I may be headed in the right direction. I started keto around beginning of September and have lost about 13 pounds. I did a cheat day yesterday and had probably carbs.
But my keto level measured negative today. Am I no longer in ketosis now? I started Keto almost 4 weeks ago. I have lost 15 lbs and stalled but have gone down a size on the stall.
The Keto urine strip is always the same color moderate that really dark pink 4. Is that ok? I mean after reading your article I probably should just toss them. I did notice that when they are in the garbage the next day they are dark purple. Thank you! Yes, if that is what you are aiming for. The test strips will show their most accurate reading after about 15 seconds, so anything after that will be unreliable. It depends on what you are aiming for! If you are purposefully aiming to be strongly in ketosis, then that would be a good score.
Many people do aim for around that area 50 — Why do my ketostix always come up negative? But either way, it is the outcome that is most important. If you are losing weight and making progress, then that is much more important than any random strip reading. I ordered a blood ketone meter to see if I can get a reading that way. And is that a bad thing? However, I would still expect there to be at least some kind of positive result. There is also the issue that sometimes these strips can be unreliable, but if you have tested multiple times with different brands then this should be irrelevant.
If you really wish to know, it might be worth taking a blood ketone test since this is more accurate. My carb,fat,protein intake does change every day and some days my protein could be higher than my fat intakes too. I did an Atkins style low carb diet many years ago and went into ketosis quickly. I started my keto diet 10 days back , starting from keto Reboot and continued on a strict low carb diet…I have lost 5. On the other hand, ketosis in a healthy person is very different.
It is always better to be safe and sure. I would pay more attention to how you feel rather than the test score. Well done! Hey Michael, thank you for sharing the information, a great read! It makes me from being in very light ketosis 0. Can you shed a light on this? This makes me question the accuracy of the strips, but also brings me hope…haha…. As the pack will probably say, depending on the brand, an accurate reading will be given at 15 seconds! So, whatever color it is at that time will be the most accurate reading.
I started the diet a month ago and tested for the first time today with urine strip. Far side of the stick. Still quite lethargic and even at times weak. I have lost weight and inches quite a bit for 4 weeks , but am not eating much compared to my prediet intake due to small appetite and may be losing weight for that reason alone? Quite a lot of points here! Generally, this is one of the positives about ketogenic diets; they seem to be really beneficial for satiation and people naturally reduce their total food consumption.
Not always, but often. I have been on a Keto diet for 8 weeks and I have lost 12 pounds. My Keto sticks always register negative. I figure if I am eating Keto foods and losing weight then I should not worry about the test strips.
Your thoughts? If you are losing weight and feeling healthy then that is the most important thing, not some random number. Thank you very much! And another thank you for the Ketone Level Chart. Added it to my phone for ready reference at a glance!
Key Point: Ketosis is a biological state where the human body burns fat rather than carbs. Key Point: Ketone test strips are a urinalysis tool. They give people an indication of their state of ketosis by showing the level of ketones in urine. Key Point: Higher ketone levels are not necessarily better.
This comment form is under antispam protection. Most reacted comment. Hottest comment thread. Recent comment authors. Notify of. Michael Joseph. Taylor A R. Hi Taylor! Hi I have been reading negative on the pee strips is that good or bad. The more common method is "area stripping", which is used on fairly flat terrain, to extract deposits over a large area. As each long strip is excavated, the overburden is placed in the excavation produced by the previous strip. Contour stripping is often followed by auger mining into the hillside, to remove more of the mineral.
This method commonly leaves behind terraces in mountainsides. Although open-pit mining is sometimes mistakenly referred to as "strip mining", the two methods are different see above. Explosives are used to break up the rock layers above the seam, which are then removed.
Excess mining waste or "overburden" is dumped by large trucks into fills in nearby hollow or valley fills. Mountaintop removal replaces the original steep landscape with a much flatter topography.
Economic development attempts on reclaimed mine sites include prisons such the Big Sandy Federal Penitentiary in Martin County, Kentucky , small town airports, golf courses such as Twisted Gun in Mingo County, West Virginia and Stonecrest Golf Course in Floyd County, Kentucky , as well as industrial scrubber sludge disposal sites, solid waste landfills, trailer parks, explosive manufacturers, and storage rental lockers. The technique has been used increasingly in recent years in the Appalachian coal fields of West Virginia , Kentucky , Virginia and Tennessee in the United States.
The profound changes in topography and disturbance of pre-existing ecosystems have made mountaintop removal highly controversial. Advocates of mountaintop removal point out that once the areas are reclaimed as mandated by law, the technique provides premium flat land suitable for many uses in a region where flat land is rare. They also maintain that the new growth on reclaimed mountaintop mined areas is better able to support populations of game animals.
Critics [ who? Environmental Protection Agency EPA environmental impact statement finds that streams near valley fills sometimes may contain higher levels of minerals in the water and decreased aquatic biodiversity.
Blasting at a mountaintop removal mine expels dust and fly-rock into the air, which can then disturb or settle onto private property nearby. This dust may contain sulfur compounds, which some claim corrode structures and tombstones and is a health hazard.
Although MTR sites are required to be reclaimed after mining is complete, reclamation has traditionally focused on stabilizing rock and controlling erosion, but not always on reforesting the area. In the Eastern United States, the Appalachian Regional Reforestation Initiative works to promote the use of trees in mining reclamation.
It is mostly associated with gold mining. Small dredges often use suction to bring the mined material up from the bottom of a water body. Historically, large-scale dredging often used a floating dredge, a barge-like vessel which scooped material up on a conveyor belt in front, removed the desirable component on board, and returned the unwanted material via another conveyor belt in back.
In gravel-filled river valleys with shallow water tables, a floating dredge could work its way through the loose sediment in a pond of its own making. Highwall mining is another form of mining sometimes conducted to recover additional coal adjacent to a surface mined area. The method evolved from auger mining but does not meet the definition of surface mining since it does not involve the removal of overburden to expose the coal seam.
CERB final report No. A typical cycle includes sumping launch-pushing forward and shearing raising and lowering the cutterhead boom to cut the entire height of the coal seam.
As the coal recovery cycle continues, the cutterhead is progressively launched into the coal seam for The Pushbeam system can penetrate nearly 1, feet m into the coal seam. One patented Highwall mining systems use augers enclosed inside the Pushbeam that prevent the mined coal from being contaminated by rock debris during the conveyance process.
Recovery is much better than Augering, but the mapping of areas that have been developed by a Highwall miner are not mapped as rigorously as deep mined areas. Very little soil is displaced in contrast with mountain top removal; however a large amount of capital is required to operate and own a Highwall miner. But then this Highwall mining system is the innovative roadmap future potential and stay or being better competitive in the area of environmental friendly non mountain-top overburden removal operated by only 4 crew members.
Mapping of the outcrop as well as core hole data and samples taken during the bench making process are taken into account to best project the panels that the Highwall miner will cut. Obstacles that could be potentially damaged by subsidence and the natural contour of the Highwall are taken into account, and a surveyor points the Highwall miner in a line Theoretical Survey Plot-Line mostly perpendicular to the Highwall.
Parallel lines represent the drive cut into the mountain up to 1, feet m deep , without heading or corrective steering actuation on a navigation Azimuth during mining results in missing a portion of the coal seam and is a potential danger of cutting in pillars from previous mined drives due to horizontal drift Roll of the Pushbeam-Cuttermodule string. Recently Highwall miners have penetrated more than feet into the coal seam, and today's models are capable of going farther, with the support of gyro navigation and not limited anymore by the amount of cable stored on the machine.
The maximum depth would be determined by the stress of further penetration and associated specific-power draw, "Torsion and Tension" in Screw-Transporters String but today's optimized Screw-Transporters Conveying Embodiments called: Pushbeams with Visual Product Development and Flow Simulation Behaviour software "Discrete Element Modeling" DEM shows smart-drive extended penetrations are possible, even so under steep inclined angles from horizontal to more than 30 degree downhole.
In early stages of moving materials out of surface mines, manual labour, horse drawn vehicles and mining railways moved materials. Current practices tend to use haul trucks on haul roads designed into the features of the mine. The impact of surface mining on the topography, vegetation, and water resources has made it highly controversial. Surface mining is subject to state and federal reclamation requirements, but adequacy of the requirements is a constant source of contention.
Reclamation for non-coal mines is regulated by state and local laws, which may vary widely. The United Mine Workers of America has spoken against the use of human sewage sludge to reclaim surface mining sites in Appalachia. According to a report in the journal Science , mountaintop mining has caused numerous environmental problems which mitigation practices have not successfully addressed.
For example, valley fills frequently bury headwater streams causing permanent loss of ecosystems. In addition, the destruction of large tracts of deciduous forests has threatened several endangered species and led to a loss of biodiversity.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
January 30, Modern agriculture's large monoculture fields grow a lot of corn and soybeans, planted annually. The outputs from row crops can be measured both in dollars paid in the market and also in non-market costs, known as externalities. Soil, nutrients, groundwater, pollinators, wildlife diversity, and habitat among other things can be lost when crop yields are maximized.
Now it appears that prairie strips have an extraordinary power to change this pattern. A prairie strip is much what it sounds like: a strip of diverse herbaceous vegetation running through a farm's rowcrops.
In the American Midwest, chances are the soil that now supports crops was once covered in prairie before cultivation. Prairie plants are a mixture of native grasses, wildflowers, and other stiff-stemmed plants. They have deep roots that draw water and nutrients from far below the surface. They are perennials, returning to grow each spring. It also leads to greater abundance and diversity of beneficial insects, pollinators such as bees and monarch butterflies, and birds.
These include ecological benefits such as flood control, cleaner water, and carbon from the atmosphere stored. Market benefits also exist: more productive soil in the fields can, in time, translate into better yields, fiber and honey production, forage for livestock, and hunting leases.
Because of promising scientific results, five years later the researchers began working with farmers to introduce prairie strips onto commercial farms. While the research results have been more variable in these more complicated settings, the findings are encouraging and cooperating farmers are liking what they see.
The plantings require a modest investment in site preparation and seed planting. Maintenance tasks include some mowing in the establishment years and spot treatment for weeds.
So far, the researchers have not seen competition between the prairie plants and crops that impact yield. Overall, Schulte Moore said, this is one of the most economical best-practice conservation steps farmers can take. Still, lack of stable financial rewards for establishing and maintaining prairie strips is a barrier to widespread adoption.
She is now focused on developing marketable products from prairie strips, such as renewable energy sources from prairie biomass. That would help make what is already a solid investment into a can't-lose proposition. Explore further. More from Earth Sciences.
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The native plants also provide habitat for wildlife. Credit: Lynn Betts. Prairie strips are composed of a diverse plant community and can be designed to provide an abundance of flowers blooming from early spring through late fall. This is crucial to conserving pollinators and other beneficial insects. Credit: Sarah Hirsh. Farmer and farmland owner collaborators gather with the STRIPS team to share knowledge about the science and practice of prairie strips.
Credit: Matt Stephenson. Provided by American Society of Agronomy. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission.
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