The complex gene pool you hand down can shape everything -- from how funny your child is to whether he likes peas. The instant our children are born, we look for reflections of ourselves in them. Moments like these are more than a little profound. Seeing yourself -- and your spouse -- in your baby makes you truly feel like a family. Inheritance goes far beyond eye and hair color: Genes can even shape personality traits like leadership and spirituality.
You can see samples of his work at ericbank. The prevailing hypothesis is that differences in functional renal reserve between Asians and Westerners may account for the phenotype encountered in Gay pov porn. Now if we flip things around where the father has two brown versions BB and the mom has two blue ones bbthe child will still end up Bb and having brown phenoty;es. Sometimes it matters whether your mom or dad has a dominant trait. Retrieved 18 December Concept of the Asian phenotype. Most of the Chinese who came to Hong Kong in the early years were from the lower classes, such as laborers, artisans, Tanka outcasts, prostitutes, wanderers, and Dominat phenotypes biracial baby asian. Anne Curtis Filipino Australian.
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It has been seen that as long as subsequent generations of mulattoes phenotpes any degree continue to mate with whites, the skin color asina each new generation will necessarily be lighter. The health implications of these differences are crucial because many disease thresholds of obesity-related illnesses are significantly different when Asians are compared to other populations for a given range of anthropometric indices when adjusted for age and sex. It's easiest to spot similarities in your child's appearance. Optic Neuritis Study Group. One certain example is that of Tapemeasure lace renowned boxer Nicaeus, born at Byzantium, whose mother was the daughter oDminat adultery with a Negro. Int J Med Sci ; 14 7 When a husband divorces his wife. Parents with a history of depression can be on the lookout for symptoms in their kids and get them help as soon as possible -- if the condition ever occurs. You will be intrigued by what they have to say. Perhaps underlying genetic polymorphisms in homocysteine metabolism and differences in the pathways of thrombosis and fibrinolysis may explain the higher biraciak of atherothromobotic stroke in Asians. The Dominat phenotypes biracial baby asian account of Hippocrates is not to be found in his extant works and is assumed lost, however, whether true or not, the fact is that Saint Augustine perpetuated the concept of maternal Hugh frant naked by including it in his own writings. Often, polygenic traits are additive -- the number of alleles you have for a given characteristic determines the extent to which the bidacial is expressed. As explained earlier in this chapter, asiwn atavism is a genetic impossibility. Even in cases where white people Dominat phenotypes biracial baby asian remote black ancestry, it is impossible to produce a genetic throwback because dark skin color genes have all been blended out.
Race is an imprecise concept.
- International Journal of Biological Sciences.
- Inasmuch as it is a genetic impossibility for these two people to have such a child, this survey finding shows that skin color inheritance is an often misunderstood phenomenon.
- Race is an imprecise concept.
The complex gene pool you hand down can shape everything -- from how funny your child is to whether he likes peas. The instant our children are born, we look for reflections of ourselves in them. Moments like these are more than a little profound.
Seeing yourself -- and your spouse -- in your baby makes you truly feel like a family. Inheritance goes far beyond eye and hair color: Genes can even shape personality traits like leadership and spirituality.
Despite startling advances in genetics , our understanding of how genes and environment interact is far from perfect. It's easiest to spot similarities in your child's appearance. Even so, nobody can predict eye pigment for sure: In some cases, both parents have blue eyes but still have a brown-eyed baby, which shouldn't happen if the trait followed the simple dominant-recessive rule.
Take hair color, for example. If a father carries only a dominant gene for brown hair and the mother carries only a recessive gene for blond, their children should all have brown hair, but some of their grandchildren are likely to be blond. Reason: The kids inherit both sets of genes, which can combine with blond genes from their mates to produce fair-haired offspring.
But don't blame the mailman if your child's hair is surprisingly red -- the interplay of genes can create all sorts of unexpected traits. And if your son eventually loses his hair, he can point a finger at either parent: Contrary to popular belief, the dominant gene for male-pattern baldness can be passed down by moms or dads. Joseph Chisolm, of Secaucus, New Jersey, certainly knows how arbitrary inheritance can be. He's black and his wife, Donelle, is white, so they weren't surprised that their first child, 4-year-old Jaydon, was dark-skinned and brown-eyed.
But their 1-year-old son, Jordon, is startlingly different: "He's white, blond, and blue-eyed," says Chisolm. Even when your kids don't look exactly like you, there may still be subtle but striking resemblances.
One study found that families tend to have similar facial expressions when they're happy, sad, angry, disgusted, surprised, or thinking hard. And kids don't just pick up these reactions from watching us: Blind members of 21 families in the study also grimaced, smiled, and scowled like their relatives 80 percent of the time. Other likenesses are quirkier. Both Kim Whorton, of Birmingham, Alabama, and her daughter Zoe, the oldest of 3-year-old triplets, have dimples in their shoulder blades -- a rare trait that's been traced to an abnormality on a specific chromosome.
In some cases, one genetic trait may be linked to others. Check the hair whorl at the top of your child's head: If it swirls counterclockwise, he has a chance of being left-handed or ambidextrous, which suggests that both hair pattern and handedness are driven by some of the same genes.
Scientists have little doubt that genes can affect a child's behavior, but exactly how nature and nurture work together is still somewhat of a mystery. One recent study concluded that almost all psychological traits are at least somewhat genetic. Research has also shown that twins often have similar personalities even when they have been raised apart. The resemblances can be uncanny.
Amber Carlsen, of Salt Lake City, says her 2-year-old daughter, Haylee, is a deja vu version of herself as a child -- bossy, independent, and fastidious. Carey, "but genetics can certainly shape preferences for things like color, which could lead a child to make choices that are similar to a parent's.
One recent study found that kids who have a taste gene that's associated with a sensitivity to bitterness are less likely to pick milk or water as their favorite drink and more likely to love sugary soft drinks and cereals. However, there's almost always a connection between genetics and environment. Musical talent is a classic example. People who have perfect pitch are four times more likely than those with only average singing voices to say that a relative has this natural gift.
Yet research has also found that most people with perfect pitch started taking music lessons before age 6, and that only 3 percent of people who started voice lessons after age 9 have perfect pitch -- suggesting that both genetics and training affect one's singing voice. Average IQ scores have gone up in the past 50 years thanks to changes such as better early-childhood education, experts say, not because we're innately smarter. And intelligence may run in families partly because bright parents tend to provide a richer learning environment -- by having more books, for example.
In fact, two recent studies found that the IQ of firstborn children is slightly higher than that of their younger siblings -- possibly because they received more undivided attention. For example, your child could have genetic potential for a high IQ, but if you drank alcohol during pregnancy, it may be lower.
Sometimes, our children pick up traits we don't intend to teach -- just by living with us. Nora Flanagan's 1-year-old son, Kevin, was adopted but has definitely taken on some family traits.
He also has a boisterous laugh that leaves him out of breath, just like both of his adoptive parents. We all know that having a family history of an illness can put a child at risk. Some diseases, such as cystic fibrosis and hemophilia, are directly caused by an abnormality on just one gene. However, most conditions involve multiple genes and complex traits that may increase a child's risk but not automatically doom him to developing the disease down the road.
Type 2 diabetes is strongly genetic: If you have it before age 50, your child has a one-in-seven chance of developing it as well. However, people in non-Western countries who eat better don't get diabetes as often, which shows that lifestyle can reduce the risk. Similarly, genetics account for an estimated 75 to 80 percent of the difference between a skinny kid and an obese one, but even if a child has "fat genes," he can avoid weight-related problems like heart disease if he has healthy habits.
For example, if your father had skin cancer and your child has strawberry-blond hair, you should be extra vigilant about using sunscreen.
Parents with a history of depression can be on the lookout for symptoms in their kids and get them help as soon as possible -- if the condition ever occurs. And that's a big if. Whenever parents say, 'My child is just like me,' they usually qualify it by saying 'except for Scientists used to think people had up to , genes -- until the Human Genome Project revealed that we actually have closer to 25, Why the huge overestimate?
It turns out most genes are multitaskers and do their jobs by marshalling other genes -- turning them on and off or boosting their effects -- so we need fewer genes overall. As a result, few characteristics can actually be traced back to a single gene there aren't enough genes to go around for that. Nevertheless, kids have a greater chance of inheriting some characteristics rather than others.
Here are some of the traits you're most likely to pass on. Used with permission from the September issue of Parents magazine. All content on this Web site, including medical opinion and any other health-related information, is for informational purposes only and should not be considered to be a specific diagnosis or treatment plan for any individual situation. Use of this site and the information contained herein does not create a doctor-patient relationship.
Always seek the direct advice of your own doctor in connection with any questions or issues you may have regarding your own health or the health of others.
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Nevertheless, kids have a greater chance of inheriting some characteristics rather than others. Nephrology, dialysis, transplantation: official publication of the European Dialysis and Transplant Association - European Renal Association. Taylor Hearts bizarre lesbian humiliation and boot licking submission of spanked 9 min The Pain Files - In this case the child would be a mulatto and would have to be lighter than its father. Compared to Western lateral cephalometric norms, Japanese people have smaller anteroposterior but proportionately greater vertical facial dimensions, with a dolico-facial pattern predisposing to OSA. London, ,
Dominat phenotypes biracial baby asian. Asian People
Figure reproduced with permission from the National Geographic Society. Cladistic dendrograms computed on phylogenetic data yield insights on divergence of homo sapiens from a common ancestor and lend support to phenotypic variations distinctive of human populations in the continent defined as Asians.
Figure reproduced with permission from Oxford University Press. Early humans dwelling in Asia could have acquired distinctive traits and conserved specific ranges of responses in health and disease governed by the rules of phenotype plasticity amidst complex environmental cues peculiar to the Asia continent over the course of millenia Figure 4.
Alleles at various chromosomal loci function in a plastic response code to generate molecules with specific kinetic profiles that influence distinct developmental pathways. There is an excess of type 2 diabetes mellitus among urban and migrant Asian Indians above and beyond what is purely predicted by traditional risk factors alone. It is now recognized that abdominal adiposity varies between Westerners and Asians and that cutoffs originally proposed in diagnostic guidelines for metabolic syndrome eg.
Asian Indians and East Asians have smaller body size, more truncal and abdominal adiposity but lower average waist circumference than Westerners [ 16 , 17 ]. Notably, South Asian neonates born in the Netherlands revealed a thin-fat insulin resistant phenotype compared to a matched Dutch white controls group [ 18 ]. A recent genetics analysis on type 2 diabetes employing quantitative network models on a comprehensive database of genome-wide association studies GWAS catalog literature revealed the existence of different ancestry-specific human phenotype networks operating via disparate pathways in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes among Asians versus Westerners, thereby underscoring the importance of ancestry origins in the ultimate phenotype in this metabolic disorder [ 19 ].
Hypothesis of the Origin of the Asian Phenotype. This illustrates a working model of the possible pathways of the genesis of the Asian phenotype from a multivariate phenome space based on intricate interactions between the genome and exposome.
Warfarin occurs as a racemic mixture of S- and R-enantiomers, with the former about 5 times more potent. Its narrow therapeutic index coupled with wide inter-individual dosing variations makes it notoriously challenging to adapt Western protocols for Asians. Rapid advances have transformed the oncology landscape ranging from screening, diagnostics, therapy, tumor responses, cytotoxic resistance and cancer prognosis.
At all these fronts, evidence is accumulating that Asians vary significantly from Westerners. A recent cross-sectional study also supported the finding that aggressive poorly-differentiated triple-negative breast cancers occur with greater frequency in young Asian women relative to Europeans [ 22 ].
Treatment efficacy also differs between Asians and non-Asians for a variety of reasons. Modern molecular therapies such as epidermal growth factor receptor EGFR -tyrosine kinase inhibitors for advanced non-small cell lung cancer have benefited more Asians than non-Asian patients related to the fact that EGFR mutations occur at higher frequency in Asians than non-Asians.
In terms of survival, with the exception of South Asians, all other groups of Asian men Chinese, Filipino, Japanese, Korean and Vietnamese did better than Westerners with prostate cancer despite having paradoxically worse risk profiles such as older age and more advanced disease at diagnosis [ 23 ].
A recent study showed that the incidence of optic neuritis in Singapore was 0. Among those affected in Singapore, the incidence was higher in the Chinese and Indians relative to the Malays. Pain at presentation occurred in This is similarly observed in Taiwan, Korea and Japan. Papillitis and disc hemorrhages were also far commoner among Asians compared to Western populations.
Visual recovery rate is similar to Westerners though the recurrence rate is lower in Asians. The conversion rates of optic neuritis to multiple sclerosis among Asians seemed lower than those of Westerners [Optic Neuritis Study 25]. Asians have a higher prevalence of lacunar strokes and higher incidence among males of intracerebral hemorrhage [ 26 ]. There is also a relatively greater prevalence of strokes in younger patients and intracranial atherosclerosis.
Yet, extracranial carotid atherosclerosis appears to be less common in Asia. Westerners in contrast more often suffer from cardioembolism, occluded carotid and vertebral arteries more than Asians. Asian Americans have more blockages involving deeper intracranial arteries than their Westerner counterparts. Subcortical ischaemic vascular dementia is more frequent in Asians because cerebral small vessel disease is commoner in Asians than Westerners [ 27 ].
Perhaps underlying genetic polymorphisms in homocysteine metabolism and differences in the pathways of thrombosis and fibrinolysis may explain the higher frequency of atherothromobotic stroke in Asians. The Brugada syndrome, characterized by incomplete right bundle branch block and ST elevations in anterior precordial leads on ECG is largely a voltage-gated Na v 1. Clinically, it is relatively asymptomatic till a cardiac catastrophe arises.
Occasionally, life-threatening ventricular arrthythmias have been precipitated by fever, alcohol or drugs with sodium or calcium-channel blocking activity. Although not confined to Asians, the Brugada syndrome could be considered itself an Asian phenotype out of a spectrum of related cardiac electrophysiological channelopathies.
A recent Canadian study of over a thousand SLE cases comprising Westerners and Asians found that Asian patients appeared to have the youngest age at onset with more frequent renal involvement and exposure to immunosuppressives compared with Western patients [ 29 ]. Chinese are more likely to suffer from arterial thromboembolic events whereas Westerners were more likely to have anti-phospholipid syndrome with venous thromboembolism.
Another interesting study comparing SLE among community-based cohorts of Westerners and Chinese patients residing in Minnesota, USA and Singapore respectively showed that Asian patients have a greater tendency toward major organ involvement such as renal or cerebral disease compared with Westerners, which could contribute to the greater morbidity and mortality among Asians sufferers of SLE.
Western patients were three times more likely than Asian patients to have serositis and seven times more likely than Chinese patients to have a hematologic complication. More recently, single nucleotide polymorphisms of the protein tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor type 22 PTPN22 , a negative regulator of T-cell activation, was found to be different between European-Americans compared with Asians with respect to a population of over patients with different clinical sub-phenotypes of SLE, validating the notion of phenotypic variations of this disease between people according to their ancestral origins [ 31 ].
Furthermore, Westerners appear to have a greater propensity to hepatic fibrosis than Asians. These susceptibility allelic variants are significantly found among Westerners, and yet not among the Asian Chinese [ 33 ]. Asians, in particular, seem to have a greater predilection for and also have much greater severity of this illness compared with Westerners matched for age, gender and BMI [ 34 ]. Based on objective polysomnographic data, Asian patients had significantly lower minimum oxygen saturation and higher esophageal pressures and respiratory disturbance index.
OSA patients generally tended to have larger thyromental angles and higher Mallampati scores leading to a crowded posterior oropharynx couple with a steep thyromental plane than non-OSA patients. A Japanese study that focused on bony factors offered further clues. Compared to Western lateral cephalometric norms, Japanese people have smaller anteroposterior but proportionately greater vertical facial dimensions, with a dolico-facial pattern predisposing to OSA.
This has obvious implications for companies developing and manufacturing home continuous positive airway pressure CPAP machines as they need to factor in these fundamental anatomical differences to adapt their mask devices to the Asian population. It appears that the rate of involvement of the kidneys by diabetes mellitus is not only dependent on the glycemic control but also on racial factors [ 36 ].
In a large longitudinal cohort study, diabetic nephropathy was shown to be commoner in Asians than Westerners. The prevailing hypothesis is that differences in functional renal reserve between Asians and Westerners may account for the phenotype encountered in Asians. Nitric oxide, which influences glomerular filtration, renal plasma flow and renal clearance of metabolites via its effects on renal vasodilatation, is an important determinant of the risk of diabetic nephropathy.
Studies on nitric oxide in type 2 diabetes mellitus suggest that the renal reserve in Westerners is significantly higher than Asians and this is not confounded by duration of diabetes. The Asian phenotype is a distinct 'effect modifier' and is essentially the collective 'phenome' arising from various systemic levels of biology unique to the Asian population Table 1. Given the Asian phenotype's cross-cutting nature across many scientific fields and disciplines, the implications for medicine and public health are expectedly profound.
Variations from the perceived 'standard' could be small and irrelevant at times and yet prove crucial with devastating consequences if ignored at other times. As the Asian phenotype gets factored into the diagnostic and therapeutic equation, differing cutoffs and thresholds will imply that disease burden and healthcare costs could change significantly. The end result can affect the intensity of health screening efforts, medical expenditure and re-shape public health policies.
Biopharmaceutical industries have largely progressed ahead to include Asians in most of their clinical trials to ensure that their conclusions and drug indications are equally applicable in the setting of non-Asians and Asians alike to facilitate the registration of their products in countries with strict regulatory authorities governing the use of pharmaceutical agents and medical devices in their unique populations. Asian countries could impose on drug companies to repeat studies that have been conducted only on non-Asians so as to demonstrate either equivalence or any significant differences for any agent before it is deemed safe for their population.
Personalized and precision medicine, though still in its infancy, is poised to mature and expected to become a standard process at the bedside in the near future. Variation of a trait between individuals within a race has been reported to be much greater in magnitude than the mean variation between races though this finding remains disputable. This may apply to multifactorial traits. In such instances, the restriction of the study population to a particular race or ethnic group would clearly limit the effectiveness of the study.
In the future, specific human pharmacogenetic phenotypes or phenomes might become extra biological factors to be considered in addition to such subdivisions into an Asian or Caucasian phenotype.
There is an increasing recognition of atypical, yet distinctive, features of many diseases seen in large population segments across Asia that may be termed the 'Asian phenotype'.
This Asian phenotype applies across many different disciplines in Medicine. More emphasis should be placed on studying its impact on diagnosis, treatment and clinical research particularly as our understanding of the connections between the genome, epigenome, epitranscriptome and ultimately the phenome broadens with technological advances.
The patient editorial assistance offered by Jane Sim-Joo Tan in the preparation of this manuscript is deeply appreciated. Tabata Y AC. Globalising clinical development in Japan. J Commercial Biotechnol. NLM Technical Bulletin. The impact of body build on the relationship between body mass index and percent body fat.
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Karlow W BL. Interethnic factors affecting drug response. Adv Drug Res. Mitochondrial DNA and human evolution. African genetic diversity: implications for human demographic history, modern human origins, and complex disease mapping.
Annual review of genomics and human genetics. Nei M, Roychoudhury AK. Evolutionary relationships of human populations on a global scale. Molecular biology and evolution. Mutational and selective effects on copy-number variants in the human genome. Nature genetics. Pigliucci M. Developmental phenotypic plasticity: where internal programming meets the external environment.
Current opinion in plant biology. Diabetes care. Misra A, Vikram NK. Insulin resistance syndrome metabolic syndrome and obesity in Asian Indians: evidence and implications.
Place of sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors in East Asian subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus: Insights into the management of Asian phenotype. Journal of diabetes and its complications. Thin-fat insulin-resistant phenotype also present in South Asian neonates born in the Netherlands. Anastasia means business. Double domination of skinny submissive. Taylor Hearts bizarre lesbian humiliation and boot licking submission of spanked.
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Mixed-race people are mildly complicated - Gene Expression
Race is an imprecise concept. Science divides up the study of race into many disciplines, including anthropology, sociology and genetics.
The genetic characteristics of so-called biracial individuals often stem from a mix of various genes that together express traits such as skin color and eye shape. Genes code for all the proteins an individual will manufacture. Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes, one set from each parent. This means that, except for a few sex-linked genes in men, you have two copies, or alleles, of each gene.
Many human traits are polygenic: They arise from the complex interactions of several genes. Often, polygenic traits are additive -- the number of alleles you have for a given characteristic determines the extent to which the trait is expressed. Significant variations in traits can often be traced to the mutation of a single nucleotide within a gene, an event that results in a single-nucleotide polymorphism SNP.
The sequence of nucleotides -- ringed molecules containing nitrogen -- within a gene determines the sequence of amino acids in the corresponding protein. An SNP can create a new protein if it is in a protein-coding area and if it results in a codon that encodes a different amino acid. For example, scientists study SNPs to trace the change in average skin color as humans migrated from Africa to northern climes.
Melanin creates skin pigment and its quantity and distribution are a polygenic additive trait. Offspring of dark- and light-skinned parents often have skin tones of an intermediate color, reflecting a mix of genes that results in a medium amount of melanin production. However, the additive effect is not always evident, because some combinations of alleles may have dominant or environmentally sensitive interrelationships rather than additive ones.
Individuals of Asian descent often have eye folds that give their eyes a slanted appearance. The offspring of parents with and without eye folds might have a full fold, a reduced fold or no fold at all.
Again, this highlights the complexity of ascribing genetic characteristics to the notion of race. He holds an M. You can see samples of his work at ericbank. About the Author. Photo Credits.