Reproduction is the process by which organisms make more organisms like themselves. But even though the reproductive system is essential to keeping a species alive, unlike other body systems, it's not essential to keeping an individual alive. In the human reproductive process, two kinds of sex cells, or gametes GAH-meetz , are involved. The male gamete, or sperm, and the female gamete, the egg or ovum, meet in the female's reproductive system. When sperm fertilizes meets an egg, this fertilized egg is called a zygote pronounced: ZYE-goat.
Some women who have had sex don't have much of a change in their hymens, though. Two pairs of skin flaps called the labia which means lips surround the vaginal opening. When the male ejaculates when semen leaves a male's penisbetween 0. Located between the legs, the vulva covers the opening to the vagina and other reproductive organs located inside the Femal repro systems articles. Science High school biology Human body systems The reproductive system. Basal body temperature Cervical mucus Mittelschmerz. If the cyst feels painful, doctors will prescribe f amily planning pills to articlfs the growth, or Femal repro systems articles a procedure to remove the cyst. If, in this transit, it meets with sperm, a single sperm 1-cell can enter and merge with the egg or ovum 1-cellfertilizing it into a zygote 1-cell. During the fetal stage, which lasts from reoro weeks after fertilization to birth, development continues as cells Teens video clip, move, and change. The baby is pushed out of the uterus, through the cervix, and along the birth canal.
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The male reproductive system and the female reproductive system Femal repro systems articles are needed for reproduction. Article Media. Aging changes in the female reproductive system. Reproduction is the process by artices organisms make more organisms like themselves. When an egg Clips of chinese orgy out of an ovary, it enters the fallopian tube. The ovaries are two oval-shaped organs that lie to the upper right and left of the uterus. Some humans are born systeems parts of both male and female reproductive systems or incomplete reproductive organs of one sex or the other. St Louis, MO: Elsevier; chap 8. The uterus is shaped like an upside-down pear, with a thick lining and muscular walls — in fact, the uterus contains some of the strongest muscles in the female body. Growing evidence suggests that AGEs, a type of chemical compound in the body, contribute to the development of many different diseases. Scrotum - External pouch of skin that contains the testes. Hormone therapy has risks, so it is not for every woman. During fetal life, there are about 6 million to 7 million eggs. This ability to become wider or narrower allows the Femal repro systems articles to accommodate something as slim as a tampon and as wide as a baby.
- Although a man is needed to reproduce, it is the woman who incubates the developing fetus and delivers the child into the world.
- The female reproductive system provides several functions.
- Human reproductive system , organ system by which humans reproduce and bear live offspring.
Most health issues related to the reproductive system are easily addressed. Many women, old and young, frequently complain about problems related to their reproductive system. Below are some common issues that are frequently reported:. Improper self-hygiene such as rinsing from the back to the front, not the other way around, after defecating can also cause inflammation.
Vulvovaginitis is marked by redness and itching on the vulva and vaginal area, sometimes the excretion of fluid from the vagina may occur. Bleeding can also be caused by uterus shedding, a condition where the mucous membrane of the urethra sticks out of the vagina and forms a soft tissue shaped like a ring that is prone to bleed.
Non-menstrual bleeding can also be caused by injuries during cycling if the vagina bumps into the bicycle frame or trauma caused by sexual harassment.
Women with this condition may undergo severe abdominal pain and need to consult a doctor immediately because it usually requires a surgical procedure. Endometriosis can cause abnormal bleeding, painful menstruation and pelvic pain. Although it is statistically rare, this type of tumor can still happen. Women who have ovarian tumors will experience pain in the upper stomach and pressure in the abdomen.
A surgical procedure to remove the tumor is required to subdue the condition. Large cysts can put pressure on the surrounding organs and can cause stomach pain. In many cases, cysts will disappear and do not need any special treatment.
If the cyst feels painful, doctors will prescribe f amily planning pills to stop the growth, or conduct a procedure to remove the cyst. This condition causes the ovaries to enlarge and develop a cyst. Depending on the type and severity of the condition, this abnormality can be treated using menstrual and hormonal balancing drugs.
This rare yet deadly disease is caused by a toxic release into the body from a bacterial infection that can develop if a tampon is left too long in the vagina.
This disease can cause symptoms such as high fever, diarrhea, vomiting and shock. If you think you have any of these signs or symptoms, or if you have any questions regarding your growth, talk to your doctor. Disclaimer: The opinions expressed in this article are those of the author and do not reflect the official stance of The Jakarta Post.
Register here. Forgot Password? Log in with your social account Facebook Google Linkedin. Common problems of the female reproductive system. Below are some common issues that are frequently reported: Problems related to the vulva and vagina - Vulvovaginitis is inflammation of the vulva and vagina that can be caused by irritation such as from detergent or soap. Subscribe now. Topics : health menstruation menstrual-cycle health reproductive-system.
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These can help with vaginal and vulvar discomfort due to the drying and thinning of tissues. Because the scrotum is located outside of the abdomen, it can reach temperatures that are lower than that of internal body structures. Discuss the risks and benefits of hormone therapy with your provider. On average, the monthly cycle for an adult woman is 28 days, but the range is from 23 to 35 days. The cells ripen on a regular basis, but only one is released each month until a woman reaches menopause. It's clamped and cut close to the navel after the baby is delivered.
Femal repro systems articles. Variations in the reproductive system
Fertilization occurs if a sperm enters the fallopian tube and burrows into the egg. While the fertilization usually occurs in the oviducts, it can also happen in the uterus itself. The egg then becomes implanted in the lining of the uterus, where it begins the processes of embryogenesis in which the embryo forms and morphogenesis in which the fetus begins to take shape.
When the fetus is mature enough to survive outside of the womb, the cervix dilates, and contractions of the uterus propel it through the birth canal. Around A person's sex is determined by what reproductive system the person has, but it isn't always so simple. Some humans are born with parts of both male and female reproductive systems or incomplete reproductive organs of one sex or the other. Those with both male and female reproductive parts are considered intersex. Sometimes children are labeled as male or female, depending on how complete or functional one sexual reproductive system is over the other.
Then, the other organs are removed. Today, many parents are opting to leave both sets of reproductive organs intact with the intent of letting the child decide to keep or remove the various parts when they are older.
A baby is born atypical genitalia in one in about 1, to 2, births, according to Intersex Society of North America. Females that are born without all of their reproductive system are labeled as having Mayer Rokitansky Kuster Hauser Syndrome. Many parts of the male and female reproductive systems can be affected by cancer. In females, cancer can attack the uterus, ovaries, breast and cervix, among other organs, according to the American Cancer Society.
Many experts have seen what they refer to as the "Angelina Jolie" effect, where women are taking proactive measures by having breasts and internal reproductive organs removed if they have a family history of cancer before there are signs of the disease.
Shana Wingo, who specializes on gynecologic oncology at Arizona Oncology. Ovarian cancer tends to have a poorer outcome than other gynecological cancers, Ross noted, because it is not typically diagnosed until it has progressed significantly. Tests to detect ovarian cancer, as well as cancer of the fallopian tube, and primary peritoneal cancer are currently being studied, according to the National Cancer Institute. There are two tests used to screen for cervical cancer.
The Pap test screens for cellular changes in the cervix called cytology, while the genital human papillomavirus HPV test identifies the presence of infection with high-risk HPV, the strains that are linked to cervical cancer, according to Dr. A recent study published by Cancer Cytopathology, found that HPV-only screening misses more cervical cancer in women than Pap-only or co-testing, based on approximately 8.
There is approximately a three-fold improvement in the cancer detection rate of co-testing compared to HPV only. Current guidelines recommend that women first start getting the Pap test alone when they turn 21 and repeat every three years if the test is normal until age A Pap-plus-HPV test, or co-testing, is recommended for women ages 30 to 65, and if both are negative repeated every five years, regardless of whether they have received HPV vaccination.
While genital HPV is typically associated with females, it is the most common sexually transmitted infection. The majority of sexually active people in the United States — male and female — will have HPV at some time in their lives, but most will not experience any symptoms. In a small portion of women, it can result in cervical cancer and genital warts; in men, it can cause penile and anal cancer and genital warts, according to the NIH.
Both genders can develop sexually transmitted diseases , including genital herpes, gonorrhea and syphilis, according to the National Institutes of Health NIH.
For females, severe menstrual cramping , or dysmenorrheal, is the most common disease of the reproductive system occurs with a woman's monthly menstrual period, according to Dr. Diagnosis is made by the patient's medical history and a pelvic exam. The best treatment includes medications that block the effects of prostaglandins and include ibuprofen and naproxen. The birth control pill also works well in treating dysmenorrhea by decreasing the blood flow, Ross noted. This is a neutral or indifferent stage during which the sex of an embryo can be ascertained only by examination of the chromosomes in its cells.
The next phase, one of differentiation, begins first in gonads that are to become testes and a week or so later in those destined to be ovaries. Embryos of the two sexes are initially alike in possessing similar duct systems linking the undifferentiated gonads with the exterior and in having similar external genitalia, represented by three simple protuberances.
The embryos each have four ducts, the subsequent fate of which is of great significance in the eventual anatomical differences between men and women.
Two ducts closely related to the developing urinary system are called mesonephric, or wolffian, ducts. In males each mesonephric duct becomes differentiated into four related structures: a duct of the epididymis , a ductus deferens, an ejaculatory duct , and a seminal vesicle.
In females the mesonephric ducts are largely suppressed. Differentiation also occurs in the primitive external genitalia, which in males become the penis and scrotum and in females the vulva the clitoris , labia, and vestibule of the vagina. At birth the organs appropriate to each sex have developed and are in their adult positions but are not functioning. Various abnormalities can occur during development of sex organs in embryos, leading to hermaphroditism , pseudohermaphroditism , and other chromosomally induced conditions.
During childhood until puberty there is steady growth in all reproductive organs and a gradual development of activity. Puberty marks the onset of increased activity in the sex glands and the steady development of secondary sexual characteristics. In males at puberty the testes enlarge and become active, the external genitalia enlarge, and the capacity to ejaculate develops. Marked changes in height and weight occur as hormonal secretion from the testes increases.
The larynx , or voice box, enlarges, with resultant deepening of the voice. Certain features in the skeleton, as seen in the pelvic bones and skull, become accentuated. The hair in the armpits and the pubic hair becomes abundant and thicker. Facial hair develops, as well as hair on the chest, abdomen, and limbs. Hair at the temples recedes. Skin glands become more active, especially apocrine glands a type of sweat gland that is found in the armpits and groin and around the anus.
In females at puberty, the external genitalia enlarge and the uterus commences its periodic activity with menstruation. The breasts develop, and there is a deposition of body fat in accordance with the usual contours of the mature female. Growth of axillary armpit and pubic hair is more abundant, and the hair becomes thicker. Human reproductive system. Article Media.
Info Print Print. Table Of Contents. Submit Feedback. Thank you for your feedback. Introduction Development of the reproductive organs The male reproductive system External genitalia The penis The scrotum The testes Structures of the sperm canal Accessory organs The prostate gland, seminal vesicles, and bulbourethral glands Ejaculatory ducts The female reproductive system External genitalia Internal structures The vagina The uterus Uterine structure The endometrium in the menstrual cycle Blood supply and innervation The fallopian tubes The ovaries Ovarian structure Ovulation Blood supply and innervation.
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