Comparison between liquid and deep-frozen semen for artificial insemination in developing and developed countries Methods of preserving bull semen AI application in developing countries Conclusions Bibliography. Artificial insemination AI is a globally accepted method of breeding cattle and is also effective for other species. An estimated worldwide total of million cows are artificially inseminated, while the number of artificially inseminated females of other species is uncertain Bonadonna and Succi, AI shares the same advantages and disadvantages in both developed and developing countries, but the cost-benefit factors are quite different. The transportation of inseminators and their equipment all the year round is a basic major cost in the management of this technique and can sometimes become prohibitive for a successful AI operation in developing countries.
The first misconception to get out of the way Fresh frozen semen that one method is, froze definition, better than the rest. Has the mare been to the stallion or inseminated previously? For that reason, it is advisable to test the storage ability of a stallion before his semen is shipped to Fresh frozen semen client. If he were to be a show stallion the decision could delay or limit his ability to produce offspring. Only Randi jackson bikini pictures the case of the herd bull model were carrying costs used. Canine DNA Bank. The addition of glycerol may enhance motility, though the advantage has generally been small Frzoen, The semen should remain constant at that temperature for 48 hours. In the trial of Salamonmature Merino ewes were inseminated at the second oestrus after synchronization with intravaginal sponges. A benefit of sending a bulk shipment to a reputable storage and distribution facility in a foreign country is that the semen is ready and waiting for a mare owner to purchase.
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Cranial Cruciate Injury. One Health. Increased Quality Control if Produced by a Reputable Laboratory Many factors can influence the quality of a dose of cooled semen received by a mare owner or veterinarian. UpJohn Co Vetropharm. Benefits of liquid semen compared with deep-frozen semen A cost-benefit analysis of different breeding models using liquid and deep-frozen semen was undertaken by Hickman and Istanbulluoglu Problem Diabetic. Fractures of Mandible. In this context, prophylaxis and protection against contamination of the semen will Fresh frozen semen a major issue for the preservation of RT Fresh frozen semen. Deep-frozen ram semen is not easy to use, mainly because of rfozen factors: fertility of deep-frozen semen is about 20 percent frozej than that of fresh semen; the required semeb of spermatozoa appears to be higher than in fresh semen; and the technique is Frfsh expensive and more complicated Colas, Sheepbecause of the more complex cervix, have been much more difficult. The use of artificial insemination in developing countries. Successful Veterinary Business. When stallions are collected for semen freezing, the Horseback riding in kissimmee frequency is typically 3 days per week. Leptospirosis in New Zealand.
Artificial Insemination AI involves the introduction of sperm into the reproductive tract of the mare without natural mating.
- The benefits of using frozen semen when breeding a mare are numerous.
- Full text of the proceedings is presented here.
- Semen is collected from the stud dog by manual stimulation.
Comparison between liquid and deep-frozen semen for artificial insemination in developing and developed countries Methods of preserving bull semen AI application in developing countries Conclusions Bibliography. Artificial insemination AI is a globally accepted method of breeding cattle and is also effective for other species. An estimated worldwide total of million cows are artificially inseminated, while the number of artificially inseminated females of other species is uncertain Bonadonna and Succi, AI shares the same advantages and disadvantages in both developed and developing countries, but the cost-benefit factors are quite different.
The transportation of inseminators and their equipment all the year round is a basic major cost in the management of this technique and can sometimes become prohibitive for a successful AI operation in developing countries.
Further difficulties are a lack of support services such as telephone communication, electricity, equipment, maintenance and the supply of spare parts.
These factors should therefore be taken into consideration when AI is to be applied in developing countries. The technique should fit into a given infrastructure and be adapted to available facilities. Herd size in developing countries is generally small, the use of herd bulls is costly and the spread of reproductive diseases by natural service can be a danger.
From this viewpoint alone, not to mention its immense potential in animal breeding, AI is to be preferred. In most of the developing countries, AI was introduced on a small scale during the s and s and was carried out with fresh or room-temperature RT semen. During the late s deep-frozen semen started to be processed while donor agencies encouraged the introduction of highly specialized and costly AI establishments, supported by international investment but with little thought given to the prospects of their maintenance.
In view of this, operational capability still depends in many cases on the availability of donor funds. The advantages of long-term storage have therefore convinced producers in developing countries to practice AI with frozen rather than liquid semen. Generally, the foremost advantage of AI is that it can be carried out independently of the sire's presence. Furthermore, it allows an enormous multiplication of outstanding genetic material and serves as a prophylaxis against spreading venereal diseases.
Semen can be stored deep-frozen in liquid nitrogen LN 2 , in a chilled liquid form or at room temperature. In terms of costs, the production of frozen semen requires a much higher investment in laboratory equipment while the necessary machinery and instruments incur heavy maintenance costs.
Semen collection is generally performed with an artificial vagina. According to the length of storage planned, different semen extenders have been developed. The composition of a semen extender is mainly based on an energy resource sugars such as glucose and lactose and a buffer medium of different inorganic or organic salts. Milk and egg yolk, for example, are basic ingredients of most extending media Salisbury, van Demark and Codge, Egg yolk, especially, is recognized as a protectant against cold shock through its lipoprotein and phosphatidylcholine Evans and Setchell, Semen extender solutions of approximately 20 percent egg yolk have become standard for use in most extenders.
In the case of deep-frozen semen, glycerol is added for cryopreservation and it remains the standard cryopreservative agent. When semen is frozen by conventional methods in a glass ampoule, approximately 7 percent of glycerol is optimal for egg yolk citrate EYC and TRIS extender, 11 to 13 percent for fresh and reconstituted skim milk Salisbury, van Demark and Codge, The addition of glycerol may enhance motility, though the advantage has generally been small Foote, The average sperm production of a bull ranges between 3.
When using liquid semen, a minimum amount of 2. Consequently, each ejaculate could provide 1 to 4 doses. However, when using frozen semen, approximately 20 million total sperm per dose are required. This would amount to to doses of frozen semen per ejaculate. In principal, thawing solutions follow the same requirements as the semen extender. In , Nagase, Graham and Niwa cit. Omer, reported the influence of different thawing solutions on the fertility of pellet semen see Table 1.
Of the solutions tested, buffered glucose milk showed the best results. However, in this case the storage time is usually very limited after thawing. Shannon made a trial to test the effect of oxygen levels on the survival of sperm. The results of this trial are shown in Table 2.
The three principal features of the trial were: significant differences in survival according to dilution rates; significant interaction between nitrogen saturation and dilution effects; and significant interaction between nitrogen saturation, days of storage and dilution rates. The effect of nitrogen saturation, therefore, was to halt the decline in incubation life associated with ageing semen, and this effect was much more marked for semen stored in a highly diluted form compared with semen stored in a concentrated form.
It seems unlikely that this effect is caused by nitrogen as such, but rather by a reduction of oxygen tension in the media. One of the products of aerobic metabolism in bull sperm is peroxide. This has detrimental effects on survival and is produced by the dead sperm enzyme aromatic-L-amino acid oxidase. It can be eliminated effectively by the addition of catalase to the diluent. Catalase improves sperm survival even in nitrogen-saturated diluents, and a combination of nitrogen saturation and catalase addition is a most effective form of protection against dilution effects at very high dilution rates Shannon, Thus, in the case of RT semen Coconut milk extender, CME, and Caprogen extender catalase was added to neutralize hydrogen peroxide in the media.
As egg yolk provides the substrate for the dead sperm enzyme aromatic-L-amino acid oxidase, lowering the concentration of egg yolk in the diluent will also reduce the final concentration of hydrogen peroxide. Summarizing activity can be reduced by: lowering the concentration of egg yolk, which provides the substrate for this enzyme; and lowering O 2 tension in the diluent at 30 and 40 percent air saturation of diluents.
The subsequent activity of this enzyme is, respectively, 40 and 55 percent of its activity at percent air saturation Shannon and Curson, To test the effect of catalase additions, a trial was conducted by Shannon , who compared the effects of different dilutions with and without catalase and at two different levels of egg yolk see Table 3. There were two main results: first, the conception rate did not decline despite higher dilution rates; second, although the addition of catalase appeared to give improved conception rates, it apparently did not affect the dilution rate response.
Consequently, through improvement of the Caprogen diluent, the number of sperm per insemination has been progressively reduced from five million total sperm to two million total sperm per insemination Shannon, Curson and Rhodes, A series of trials was conducted by Shannon and Curson to determine the optimum storage temperature for sperm diluted in Caprogen.
In principle, egg yolk and sulfanilamide were left out. In the latter case, glucose and sodium hydrogen carbonate were added to CME and polymyxin was omitted. HTS preserves sperm motility up to 48 hours after thawing. However, both media produced a significantly higher percentage of motile sperm after thawing than the control samples of a glucose solution of sodium hydrogen carbonate.
Because of seasonal breeding in New Zealand, as cited by Salisbury, van Demark and Codge , semen is frozen in bulk. The extended semen is then placed in dialysis tubing, about 1. After equilibration, the semen in the dialysis is frozen. If animals are inseminated within three to seven hours after thawing, five million total sperm per insemination are sufficient. Fertility results with liquid and deep-frozen semen Providing liquid semen was used within the first two days after processing, insignificant differences were found between the conception rates of cows inseminated with liquid semen and those inseminated with deep-frozen semen Satter, Deka and Baruah, ; Austin, Rodricks and Rathnasabapathy, However, liquid semen seems to achieve higher conception rates if inseminations are carried out in the early oestrus phase New Zealand Dairy Board, Using frozen semen, Schuh found that between five and ten million progressive motile sperm per insemination are needed in order to ensure optimal fertility rates.
In bulls with a low fertility capacity, even more than 20 million progressive motile sperm per insemination might be required. Satisfactory results have been claimed by different authors as regards the survival and fertility rates of bovine spermatozoa preserved in CME. Norman et al. A calving rate of In a comparison between CME and deep-frozen semen used under conditions in Uganda, inseminations with frozen semen showed better results than those with CME semen El-Wishy, Using CME semen, the breeding efficiency for the first insemination was The conception rates for fresh semen of one, two, three, four, five, six and seven days were 54, The mortality rate of embryos is obviously reduced by the use of fresh rather than frozen semen.
For 25 heifers slaughtered a few days after insemination with fresh semen, 24 slaughtered one month after insemination with fresh semen and 24 slaughtered one month after insemination with frozen semen, the percentage of animals with a fertilized egg or an embryo was 80, 75 and All embryos and all but one fertilized egg were viable Boland and Gordon, Wijeratne studied the apparent mortality among embryos from the fourth to sixteenth week of gestation.
The rate of apparent mortality was higher among embryos in females inseminated with frozen semen than in those inseminated with fresh semen Extracorporeal ageing of fresh semen also increased the rate of apparent embryonic mortality, but to a lesser extent than it did for frozen semen. In ewes, fertility results with fresh semen are still superior to those of thawed semen Salamon, ; Langford et al.
Therefore, in sheep, most AI is performed with diluted liquid semen while only a few ewes are inseminated with frozen semen Colas, Deep-frozen ram semen is not easy to use, mainly because of three factors: fertility of deep-frozen semen is about 20 percent lower than that of fresh semen; the required number of spermatozoa appears to be higher than in fresh semen; and the technique is more expensive and more complicated Colas, In the trial of Salamon , mature Merino ewes were inseminated at the second oestrus after synchronization with intravaginal sponges.
Of ewes inseminated with thawed semen, Of ewes inseminated with fresh semen, Even when semen was stored for eight hours in a refrigerator, conception rates were significantly lower with refrigerated semen than fresh semen Cordova et al.
Using rediluted bull semen in , Wibling cit. Omer, reported NRR results of Rediluted semen pellet semen thawed in HTS was used by Omer in a trial of 2 first inseminations. With semen stored for 24 to 48 hours, 1 15 first inseminations resulted in a Shannon rediluted frozen concentrated semen with Caprogen and 5 percent egg yolk and catalase.
By inseminating at days zero, one and two after processing, respective NRRs of Benefits of liquid semen compared with deep-frozen semen A cost-benefit analysis of different breeding models using liquid and deep-frozen semen was undertaken by Hickman and Istanbulluoglu They give comparative cow breeding costs using different breeding methods in Turkey see Table 5.
Only in the case of the herd bull model were carrying costs used. Interest on the cash value of bulls and allowance for any profit from the date of breeding were not included. Neither was allowance made for reproductive diseases caused by natural service or for the loss of potential milk yield from the barn space occupied by the bulls. In the case of AI models, there is no allowance for the benefit of genetic superiority over the herd bull model, nor is there any cost factor for recording systems and breed improvement programmes.
The frozen model assumes the purchase of semen, with operational costs relating to storing and handling only. Neither of the AI models include transportation costs for inseminators.
Bonadonna, T. Vomiting Cat. Center: Technical Management and Obtainable Results When deciding the pros and cons of equine frozen semen there are many factors to consider. The advantages and disadvantages of utilizing equine frozen semen are debated by stallion and mare owners alike. Semen can be collected and frozen from any stallion, provided he is sexually mature, is trained to be collected and has adequate fertility and semen quality. Herpes Virus-1 Ocular Disease.
Fresh frozen semen. Obtain Semen From Storage Facility
Please call to let us know the tracking number and when it was shipped. It is required to schedule a pre-breeding exam to allow us to evaluate the bitch, her breeding history and to appropriately plan the insemination dose and route. We always request enough semen to inseminate the bitch twice, however, often only one breeding is available to us. Whenever possible, we would like a minimum of million live sperm for a single insemination.
In certain situations double this amount may be advised. The amount of semen offered from the stud dog or freezing center may be less than this recommendation; we will work with what is provided but these recommendations are ideal.
This can be discussed during a pre-breeding examination. Semen is injected into the uterus directly with either method.
Transcervical Insemination TCI will achieve this without the risks of anesthesia and surgery please see the TCI handout by using a scope to visualize the cervix.
Approximate recovery time from the surgical method is days. There is no restriction in activity after a TCI. Breeding by two TCI's approximately 24 hours apart is the best plan whenever possible.
If TCI is not achieved, surgical insemination is recommended as a back up plan, but the bitch is only bred once by the surgical method. Surgical insemination may be considered as the optimal first choice in some situations or if only one dose of semen is supplied. Ovulation timing is the key to success with frozen semen. It is best for stallion and mare owners to inquire with their individual registries for any restrictions. As well as being an insurance policy for illness or death, frozen semen can be a great back-up to a cooled semen program.
For example, if there is insufficient cooled semen available to ship to all the mares required on a particular collection day, some mares can be serviced with frozen semen, or if there is an unexpected semen quality issue after collection for cooled semen shipments, the stallion owner can still service the mares with frozen semen.
Many factors can influence the quality of a dose of cooled semen received by a mare owner or veterinarian. A stallion could have suffered a slight fever or illness, there could have been a problem with the collection, the extender or how the semen was handled and processed. These and many other factors can result in poor quality semen upon arrival, upset mare owners, disgruntled vets and lower pregnancy rates.
With frozen semen a post-thaw analysis is performed by the processing laboratory, so you know in advance the quality of the semen you will be receiving. Also you should be informed about the total sperm numbers in a frozen semen dose and therefore you can be assured you are receiving a full dose of semen. It may sometimes happen that you receive less than the ideal number of sperm in your cooled semen dose, for example if the stallion has many mares to service that day, or has semen quality issues.
In addition, the use of frozen semen allows for pre-screening for infectious disease. In the past several years there have been two major disease outbreaks in the USA that have had a major economic impact on the breeding industry.
It is SBS policy that all stallions be tested for certain infectious diseases that may be transmittable through semen before entering SBS collection facilities. With follow up testing after the freezing period is finished, stocks of disease-free semen can be produced for distribution.
It was previously believed when breeding with frozen semen that a mare must travel to a vet clinic, be palpated every hours, and must be bred right at the time of ovulation for a pregnancy to result. With the use of published timed insemination protocols there is a decrease in the number of required palpations, it also allows the mare owner the option of keeping their mare at home and scheduling fixed appointments with their veterinarian.
Veterinarians are given the flexibility of monitoring mares one time a day during normal hours without compromising fertility. For more information see our FAQs: My veterinarian says that you must breed mares in the middle of the night with frozen semen because it doesn't live long after thawing, is this true? When a stallion is collected for cooled semen doses there is typically no out-of-pocket cost for the stallion owner at the time of collection.
The collection, processing and shipping fees are usually covered by the mare owners and paid directly to the collection facility. When semen is frozen from a stallion the expenses are paid by the stallion owner at the time of collection and processing. Though this does not have to be a negative for the stallion owner. Incurring the cost to freeze semen can allow the stallion owner to keep their stallion in training and in the show ring adding to their earnings during breeding season.
For stallions collected offsite it can negate the inconvenience of trailering the stallion to another facility for cooled semen collections. If the stallion is collected on the farm, salaries paid to additional staff to collect semen for cooled shipments during breeding season are unnecessary and can be used towards semen freezing costs instead.
It was previously believed when using frozen semen one could expect lower conceptions rates than when using cooled semen. It is true one can expect higher conceptions rates when using fresh semen compared to cooled or frozen semen.
However, there are few published articles comparing the fertility of fresh, cooled and frozen semen within the same stallion. In one particular study the fertility of cooled semen was less than fresh and the fertility of frozen semen was slightly less than cooled semen.
However, in other studies comparing frozen and cooled semen the results have been found to be similar. This study looked at shipping either cooled or frozen semen from 36 stallions to a total of mares. The fertility of fresh, cooled or frozen semen is highly stallion dependent.
Please visit our Review of Reports for Reproductive Efficiency for more information on expected fertility when breeding with frozen semen. However, this rule is not always found to be true. Many factors can affect the quality of cooled semen such as collection technique, collection frequency, processing techniques, etc.
If a reputable facility, such as SBS, is used to freeze semen then strict protocols for collection and processing, disease testing, storage, and collection frequency are followed thus increasing the possibility the semen could survive the semen freezing process when it was otherwise believed it could not. When breeding mares with frozen semen it is best to choose young, reproductively sound mares. In older and problem mares, pregnancy rates after insemination with frozen semen are lower than AI with fresh semen.
The deposition of semen in the uterus, by natural breeding or artificial insemination, causes a strong inflammatory reaction.
This is a natural process designed to remove excess sperm, seminal plasma and contaminants from the uterus. Older mares appear to be less efficient at clearing this natural inflammatory process that follows mating. An inflammatory uterine environment 5 days after fertilization is incompatible with survival of the embryo. Older mares, at risk of developing a persistent inflammatory reaction after semen deposition require additional management at breeding time. Treatment strategies for this population of mares should include prompt correction of anatomical defects of the caudal reproductive tract, limited uterine exposure to semen and bacteria and support of uterine clearance from contaminants and products of inflammation.
Ideally, only semen of good fertility should be used in these mares. For more information see our article: Use of Frozen Semen in an A. Center: Technical Management and Obtainable Results. When deciding the pros and cons of equine frozen semen there are many factors to consider. Though many myths can be proven false it is best to contact a facility well versed in collecting, processing, storing, distributing and breeding equine frozen semen with any questions.
English English Deutsch Italiano Spanish info selectbreeders. Log In Register info selectbreeders. Advantages of Equine Frozen Semen No Need for On-demand Collections In previous years it was necessary for a stallion to be either a show stallion or a breeding stallion. Access to a Global Market The proximity of a stallion to a mare used to determine which stallion a mare owner would choose for breeding their mare.
Increased Quality Control if Produced by a Reputable Laboratory Many factors can influence the quality of a dose of cooled semen received by a mare owner or veterinarian. Timed Insemination Protocols Require Less Palpations It was previously believed when breeding with frozen semen that a mare must travel to a vet clinic, be palpated every hours, and must be bred right at the time of ovulation for a pregnancy to result.
Center: Technical Management and Obtainable Results When deciding the pros and cons of equine frozen semen there are many factors to consider. Suscribe to RSS Feed. Sign up for our Email Newsletter. Clicca sulla Bandiera Italiana per visualizzare gli articoli tradotti in italiano.
B&W Equine Vets | Stud and Reproduction Services
In pork production systems, pounds of pork produced is an economic factor. On Farm storage and handling impacts reproductive performance which has a significant effect on lowering the fixed costs of an operation, therefore improving the return of investment.
On farm storage will impact reproduction if not done correctly. When the semen arrives on farm it should be immediately put in a semen storage unit that is set at 17c 63F , preferably off site for Biosecurity reasons. Once the semen is picked up and transferred to the sow barn one should document the delivery date, batch number, number of doses and temperature of storage unit. When doses are taken out for A.
This will help to prevent old semen not to be used. Monitoring semen storage temperature should be done before breeding and before leaving the premises in the later afternoon. This is done accurately by placing an 80 ml bottle with water and a thermometer that is inserted through the stopper.
It will take a few hours for the thermometer to acclimatise to the semen storage temperature, but can be kept inside the unit until you see the volume of water decreasing. The bottle should be placed in the middle of the fridge. If doses are removed for insemination and then brought back the semen dose temperature should not exceed 20c 68F or on the low end 14c 57F. If temperature fluctuates past these points it may have affected the reproduction performance and should most likely be discarded.
To avoid injury by frostbite, use extreme care when handling liquid nitrogen. Leave no areas of skin exposed Always wear proper safety attire, face shield, cryogenic gloves and apron Always keep liquid nitrogen container in the upright position Do not tightly seal liquid nitrogen container or prevent nitrogen gas to escape Use extreme care to prevent spilling and splashing liquid nitrogen during transfer Immediately remove any clothing or safety attire which liquid nitrogen has been spilled on Get immediate medical attention for any frostbite injuries do to liquid nitrogen Do not store or use liquid nitrogen in areas that have poor ventilation- The venting of nitrogen will deplete oxygen in the air, possibly leading to asphyxiation or even death.
Filling Liquid Nitrogen must be done with care, slowly pour into the vessel without causing any splash. If filling the Dewar from a pressurised source, make sure the tank is not above 22PSI 1. Measuring Liquid Nitrogen Quantity Use wooden or plastic dipstick. Never use a hollow tube to measure liquid nitrogen Level will be indicated by frost line, which develops when dipstick is removed Check weekly and keep a documented record on the date checked and the amount of liquid nitrogen in tank- This will also show you if the tank is failing if you keep a log manifest Order Liquid nitrogen when half the tank has evaporated The big picture for peak reproductive performance and profitability is achieving high standards.
If you compromise these standards, this will affect reproduction and in turn will reduce your bottom line. Latest articles Environmental control as a sanitary tool 25 Oct Sponsored Colibacillosis is a multifactorial origin disease and therefore, for its prevention and control we need to take into account all the Environmental Risk Factors ERF. RSPCA Australia have recently launched new initiatives aiming to educate consumers on their quality assurance scheme and the standards of welfare applied in Australian pig farms.
For many decades, pork consumption in West Africa was minimal, primarily due to religious and cultural custom, however this has changed drastically, and it is reported that pork consumption is only on the rise. Sow operations requires the following for good performance: Genetics Biosecurity Controlled semen temperature Trained personnel Gilt management Gestation management Heat detection accuracy Accurate timing of insemination Breeding technique Nutritional feed in gestation and lactation Fresh semen On farm storage will impact reproduction if not done correctly.
Key standards for on farm storage and preventing fluctuation during storage: Plug the storage unit into its own electrical circuit and use a surge protector- this will avoid power surges. Measuring Liquid Nitrogen Quantity. Use wooden or plastic dipstick. Latest articles Environmental control as a sanitary tool 25 Oct Sponsored.
Colibacillosis is a multifactorial origin disease and therefore, for its prevention and control we need to take into account all the Environmental Risk Factors ERF. Bridging the gap between consumers and Australia's pig industry 24 Oct Big opportunities for pig farmers in West Africa 23 Oct View more.