Same-sex marriage , the practice of marriage between two men or between two women. Although same-sex marriage has been regulated through law, religion, and custom in most countries of the world, the legal and social responses have ranged from celebration on the one hand to criminalization on the other. Some scholars, most notably the Yale professor and historian John Boswell —94 , have argued that same-sex unions were recognized by the Roman Catholic Church in medieval Europe, although others have disputed this claim. Scholars and the general public became increasingly interested in the issue during the late 20th century, a period when attitudes toward homosexuality and laws regulating homosexual behaviour were liberalized, particularly in western Europe and the United States. The issue of same-sex marriage frequently sparked emotional and political clashes between supporters and opponents.
We also include an indicator for those individuals who live in households with a supplrt. Between mid and Maysame-sex couples had their cohabitation issues converted into marriages in several Brazil states with the approval of a state judge. The ruling of the Supreme Court in Obergefell occurred following decades of consistently rising national public support for same-sex marriage in the United Stateswith support continuing to rise thereafter. Main article: Recognition of World wide shemale guitar unions in South Korea. Prime Minister Xavier Bettel married Gauthier Destenay, with whom he had been in Same sex marriage article support civil partnership since The current ideal of marriage in Western democracies is an equal union between two companions, involving love and intimacy. The ruling standardized court procedures across Mexico to authorize same-sex marriages. New York: Routledge Press.
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Part of a series on. Homosexuals should be able to get married. The law was enacted eight days later and became effective in early March These passages in Genesis 1 and 2 also make it clear that God not only created the institution of marriage, but He also is intimately involved in bringing a husband and wife together physically through the act of Same sex marriage article support in marriage. Support for same-sex marriage has remained largely stable among both men and women since The Inter-American Court of Human Rights ruling regarding the legalisation of same-sex marriage in countries that have ratified the American Convention on Human Rights Same sex marriage article support to Chile. As of July Continue Reading. All comments. The Court said that governments "must recognise and guarantee all the rights that are derived from a family bond between people of the same sex". The law was published on 2 July
In its decision last week, the High Court of Australia cleared the way for a voluntary survey of the electorate to gauge community support for same-sex marriage.
- Same-sex marriage also known as gay marriage is the marriage of two people of the same sex or gender , entered into in a civil or religious ceremony.
- In our ongoing cultural conversation about homosexuality and same-sex marriage, we will continue to have friends and family members who will be asking us questions like these.
- Same-sex marriage , the practice of marriage between two men or between two women.
Same-sex marriage , the practice of marriage between two men or between two women. Although same-sex marriage has been regulated through law, religion, and custom in most countries of the world, the legal and social responses have ranged from celebration on the one hand to criminalization on the other. Some scholars, most notably the Yale professor and historian John Boswell —94 , have argued that same-sex unions were recognized by the Roman Catholic Church in medieval Europe, although others have disputed this claim.
Scholars and the general public became increasingly interested in the issue during the late 20th century, a period when attitudes toward homosexuality and laws regulating homosexual behaviour were liberalized, particularly in western Europe and the United States. The issue of same-sex marriage frequently sparked emotional and political clashes between supporters and opponents.
By the early 21st century, several jurisdictions, both at the national and subnational levels, had legalized same-sex marriage; in other jurisdictions, constitutional measures were adopted to prevent same-sex marriages from being sanctioned, or laws were enacted that refused to recognize such marriages performed elsewhere.
That the same act was evaluated so differently by various groups indicates its importance as a social issue in the early 21st century; it also demonstrates the extent to which cultural diversity persisted both within and among countries. For tables on same-sex marriage around the world, in the United States, and in Australia, see below. Perhaps the earliest systematic analyses of marriage and kinship were conducted by the Swiss legal historian Johann Jakob Bachofen and the American ethnologist Lewis Henry Morgan ; by the midth century an enormous variety of marriage and sexual customs across cultures had been documented by such scholars.
Notably, they found that most cultures expressed an ideal form of marriage and an ideal set of marriage partners, while also practicing flexibility in the application of those ideals. Among the more common forms so documented were common-law marriage ; morganatic marriage , in which titles and property do not pass to children; exchange marriage , in which a sister and a brother from one family marry a brother and a sister from another; and group marriages based on polygyny co-wives or polyandry co-husbands.
Ideal matches have included those between cross-cousins , between parallel cousins, to a group of sisters in polygyny or brothers in polyandry , or between different age sets. In many cultures the exchange of some form of surety, such as bride service, bridewealth , or dowry , has been a traditional part of the marriage contract. Cultures that openly accepted homosexuality, of which there were many, generally had nonmarital categories of partnership through which such bonds could be expressed and socially regulated.
Conversely, other cultures essentially denied the existence of same-sex intimacy, or at least deemed it an unseemly topic for discussion of any sort. Over time the historical and traditional cultures originally recorded by the likes of Bachofen and Morgan slowly succumbed to the homogenization imposed by colonialism. Although a multiplicity of marriage practices once existed, conquering nations typically forced local cultures to conform to colonial belief and administrative systems.
Whether Egyptian, Vijayanagaran, Roman, Ottoman, Mongol, Chinese, European, or other, empires have long fostered or, in some cases, imposed the widespread adoption of a relatively small number of religious and legal systems.
By the late 20th and early 21st centuries, the perspectives of one or more of the world religions— Buddhism , Hinduism , Judaism , Islam , and Christianity —and their associated civil practices were often invoked during national discussions of same-sex marriage. Perhaps because systems of religion and systems of civil authority often reflect and support each other, the countries that had reached consensus on the issue by the early s tended to have a single dominant religious affiliation across the population; many such places had a single, state-sponsored religion.
This was the case in both Iran, where a strong Muslim theocracy had criminalized same-sex intimacy, and Denmark , where the findings of a conference of Evangelical Lutheran bishops representing the state religion had helped smooth the way for the first national recognition of same-sex relationships through registered partnerships.
In other cases, the cultural homogeneity supported by the dominant religion did not result in the application of doctrine to the civic realm but may nonetheless have fostered a smoother series of discussions among the citizenry: Belgium and Spain had legalized same-sex marriage, for instance, despite official opposition from their predominant religious institution, the Roman Catholic Church.
The existence of religious pluralities within a country seems to have had a less determinate effect on the outcome of same-sex marriage debates. In some such countries, including the United States , consensus on this issue was difficult to reach. On the other hand, the Netherlands —the first country to grant equal marriage rights to same-sex couples —was religiously diverse , as was Canada , which did so in Most of the world religions have at some points in their histories opposed same-sex marriage for one or more of the following stated reasons: homosexual acts violate natural law or divine intentions and are therefore immoral; passages in sacred texts condemn homosexual acts; and religious tradition recognizes only the marriage of one man and one woman as valid.
In the early 21st century, however, Judaism, Christianity, Hinduism, and Buddhism all spoke with more than one voice on this issue. Orthodox Judaism opposed same-sex marriage, while the Reform, Reconstructionist, and Conservative traditions allowed for it. Most Christian denominations opposed it, while the United Church of Christ , the United Church of Canada , and the Religious Society of Friends Quakers took a more favourable stand or allowed individual churches autonomy in the matter.
The Unitarian Universalist churches and the gay-oriented Universal Fellowship of Metropolitan Community Churches fully accepted same-sex marriage. Hinduism , without a sole leader or hierarchy , allowed some Hindus to accept the practice while others were virulently opposed. The three major schools of Buddhism —Theravada, Mahayana, and Vajrayana—stressed the attainment of enlightenment as a basic theme; most Buddhist literature therefore viewed all marriage as a choice between the two individuals involved.
Sexuality is but one of many areas where religious and civic authority interact; definitions of the purpose of marriage is another. In one view, the purpose of marriage is to ensure successful procreation and child rearing. A third perspective holds that marriage is an instrument of societal domination and so is not desirable.
A fourth is that relationships between consenting adults should not be regulated by the government. Although most religions subscribe to just one of these beliefs, it is not uncommon for two or more viewpoints to coexist within a given society. Proponents of the first view believe that the primary goal of marriage is to provide a relatively uniform social institution through which to produce and raise children.
In their view, because male and female are both necessary for procreation, the privileges of marriage should be available only to opposite-sex couples.
In other words, partnerships involving sexual intimacy should have at least a notional potential for procreation. From this perspective, the movement to legally recognize same-sex marriage is a misguided attempt to deny the social, moral , and biological distinctions that foster the continued existence of society and so should be discouraged.
Among groups who feel strongly that same-sex marriage is problematic, there is also a tendency for the legal relationships of spouses, parents, and children to converge. Typically, these societies provide for the automatic inheritance of property between spouses, and between parents and children, and allow these close kin to co-own property without joint ownership contracts.
In addition, such societies often allow close kin a variety of automatic privileges such as sponsoring immigration visas or making medical decisions for one another; for those with whom one shares no close kin relationship, these privileges typically require legal interventions. Such legal circumventions are usually more difficult for, and in some cases even prohibited to, same-sex couples. In contrast to the procreative model of marriage, advocates of the legalization of same-sex marriage generally believed that committed partnerships involving sexual intimacy are valuable because they draw people together to a singular degree and in singular ways.
In this view, such relationships are intrinsically worthy while also quite distinct from though not incompatible with activities associated with the bearing or raising of children. Sexual partnerships are one of a number of factors that bond adults together into stable household units.
These households, in turn, form the foundation of a productive society—a society in which, albeit incidentally, children, elders, and others who may be relatively powerless are likely to be protected. From this perspective, the devaluation of same-sex intimacy is immoral because it constitutes arbitrary and irrational discrimination , thereby damaging the community.
Most same-sex marriage advocates further held that international human rights legislation provided a universal franchise to equal treatment under the law. Thus, prohibiting a specific group from the full rights of marriage was illegally discriminatory.
For advocates of the community-benefit perspective, all the legal perquisites associated with heterosexual marriage should be available to any committed couple.
For these reasons, they maintained that consensual intimacy between adults should not be regulated and that marriage should be disestablished as a cultural institution. A fourth view, libertarianism , had different premises from queer theory but somewhat similar ramifications; it proposed that government powers should be strictly limited, generally to the tasks of maintaining civil order, infrastructure , and defense.
For libertarians, marriage legislation of any sort—either the legalization or the prohibition of same-sex marriage—fell outside of the role of government and was unacceptable. Same-sex marriage. Article Media. Info Print Print. Table Of Contents. Submit Feedback. Thank you for your feedback. Introduction Cultural ideals of marriage and sexual partnership Religious and secular expectations of marriage and sexuality Same-sex marriage and the law International United States The future of same-sex marriage Same-sex marriage around the world.
See Article History. Alternative Titles: same-sex partnership, same-sex union. Start Your Free Trial Today. Load Next Page. More About. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students.
On 26 May , Greenland , one of two other constituent countries in the Realm of Denmark , unanimously passed a law legalising same-sex marriage. Part of a series on. Continue Reading. The results of more than a century of anthropological research on households, kinship relationships, and families, across cultures and through time, provide no support whatsoever for the view that either civilization or viable social orders depend upon marriage as an exclusively heterosexual institution. On 29 June , two family judges in Cuenca, Ecuador ruled that the Civil Registry must issue same-sex marriage licenses on request, stating that the decision of the IACHR trumped the Ecuadorian Constitution 's definition of marriage.
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Taiwan is the only country in Asia where same-sex marriage is legal. On 22 December , a proposed amendment to the Civil Code that would legalise same-sex marriage was due to go under review by the Judiciary Committee.
If the amendment passes the committee stage, it would then be voted on at the plenary session of the Legislative Yuan in The amendment, called the marriage equality amendment, would insert neutral terms into the Civil Code replacing ones that imply heterosexual marriage, effectively legalising same-sex marriage. It would also allow same-sex couples to adopt children.
In October , two new same-sex marriage bills were introduced to the Legislative Yuan. Subsequently, protests have been staged by groups opposing and by groups supporting legalisation.
On 24 May , the Constitutional Court ruled that same-sex couples have the right to marry, and gave the Taiwanese Government two years to amend the law to that effect. It was also ruled that if the law was not amended after two years, same-sex couples would automatically be able to register valid marriage applications in Taiwan.
On 17 May , lawmakers in Taiwan approved a bill legalising same-sex marriage. Since , same-sex couples have been allowed to enter into civil partnerships , a separate union providing the legal consequences of marriage. In , the High Court rejected a legal bid by a British lesbian couple who had married in Canada to have their union recognised as a marriage in the UK rather than a civil partnership.
In September , the Coalition Government announced its intention to introduce same-sex civil marriage in England and Wales by the May general election. In May , three religious groups Quakers, Liberal Judaism and Unitarians sent a letter to David Cameron, asking that they be allowed to solemnise same-sex weddings. In June , the UK Government completed the consultation to allow civil marriage for same-sex couples in England and Wales.
In December , the Prime Minister, David Cameron , announced that, whilst he favoured allowing same-sex marriage within a religious context, provision would be made guaranteeing no religious institution would be required to perform such ceremonies.
The Scottish Government conducted a three-month-long consultation that ended on 9 December The analysis was published in July Whilst the Scottish Government was in favour of same-sex marriage, it stated that no religious body would be forced to hold such ceremonies once legislation is enacted.
On 4 February , the Scottish Parliament overwhelmingly passed legislation legalising same-sex marriage. The Northern Ireland Executive has stated that it does not intend to introduce legislation allowing for same-sex marriage in Northern Ireland.
Same-sex marriages from other jurisdictions are treated as civil partnerships. In February , Bermuda passed the Domestic Partnership Act , revoking same-sex marriage, which had been legalised by a May Supreme Court ruling. On 23 November , the court upheld the Supreme Court's ruling, by which same-sex marriage became again legal in Bermuda. In the Crown dependencies , same-sex marriage has been legal in the Isle of Man since 22 July , in Guernsey and Alderney since 2 May and 14 June , respectively and in Jersey since 1 July Same-sex marriage in the United States expanded from one state in to all fifty states in through various state court rulings, state legislation, direct popular votes, and federal court rulings.
The fifty states each have separate marriage laws , which must adhere to rulings by the Supreme Court of the United States that recognize marriage as a fundamental right that is guaranteed by both the Due Process Clause and the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution , as first established in the landmark civil rights case of Loving v. Civil rights campaigning in support of marriage without distinction as to sex or sexual orientation began in the s.
Nelson saw the Supreme Court of the United States decline to become involved. Lewin that it was unconstitutional under the state constitution for the state to abridge marriage on the basis of sex.
That ruling led to federal and state actions to explicitly abridge marriage on the basis of sex in order to prevent the marriages of same-sex couples from being recognized by law, the most prominent of which was the federal DOMA. Department of Public Health that it was unconstitutional under the state constitution for the state to abridge marriage on the basis of sex. From through to , as the tide of public opinion continued to move towards support of same-sex marriage, various state court rulings, state legislation, direct popular votes referendums and initiatives , and federal court rulings established same-sex marriage in thirty-six of the fifty states.
The first two decades of the 21st century saw same-sex marriage receive support from prominent figures in the civil rights movement , including Coretta Scott King , John Lewis , Julian Bond , and Mildred Loving. Windsor , leading to federal recognition of same-sex marriage, with federal benefits for married couples connected to either the state of residence or the state in which the marriage was solemnized.
Hodges that the fundamental right of same-sex couples to marry on the same terms and conditions as opposite-sex couples, with all the accompanying rights and responsibilities, is guaranteed by both the Due Process Clause and the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution. The ruling of the Supreme Court in Obergefell occurred following decades of consistently rising national public support for same-sex marriage in the United States , with support continuing to rise thereafter.
The United States of America is the most populous country in the world to have established same-sex marriage nationwide. Uruguay's Chamber of Deputies passed a bill on 12 December , to extend marriage rights to same-sex couples. On 10 April , the Chamber of Deputies passed the amended bill by a two-thirds majority 71— The president promulgated the law on 3 May and it took effect on 5 August.
Armenia has historically had few protections or recognition in law of same-sex couples. This changed in July , when the Ministry of Justice revealed that all marriages performed abroad are valid in Armenia, including marriages between people of the same sex. As of early , "no such recognition has yet been documented. The Bulgarian Constitution forbids the legalisation of same-sex marriage, stipulating that marriage can only be between a man and a woman.
In late , a Bulgarian same-sex couple, who married in the United Kingdom , filed a lawsuit in order to have their marriage recognised. The couple, an Australian woman and her French spouse, had married in France in , but were denied residency in Bulgaria a year later when they attempted to move there.
Michelle Bachelet , the President of Chile, who was elected to a second term in March , promised to work for the implementation of same-sex marriage and had a majority in both houses of Congress. Previously, she said, "Marriage equality, I believe we have to make it happen. The Government announced that they would drop their opposition to same-sex marriage. A formal agreement between the two parties and the Inter-American Commission of Human Rights was signed in April On 28 January , the National Congress approved a bill recognizing civil unions for same-sex and opposite-sex couples offering some of the rights of marriage.
Bachelet signed the bill on 14 April, and it came into effect on 22 October. In September , President Bachelet stated before a United Nations General Assembly panel that the Chilean Government would submit a same-sex marriage bill to Congress in the first half of The Inter-American Court of Human Rights ruling regarding the legalisation of same-sex marriage in countries that have ratified the American Convention on Human Rights applies to Chile. The Marriage Law of the People's Republic of China explicitly defines marriage as the union between one man and one woman.
No other form of civil union is recognized. The attitude of the Chinese Government towards homosexuality is believed to be "three nos": "No approval; no disapproval; no promotion.
According to Chinese law, 35 delegates' signatures are needed to make an issue a bill to be discussed in the Congress. Her efforts failed due to lack of support from the delegates.
He argued that same-sex marriage was not recognized even in many Western countries, which are considered much more liberal in social issues than China. On 5 January , a court in Changsha , southern Hunan Province , agreed to hear the lawsuit of year-old Sun Wenlin filed in December against the Bureau of Civil Affairs of Furong District for its June refusal to let him marry his year-old male partner, Hu Mingliang.
On 13 April , with hundreds of same-sex marriage supporters outside, the Changsha court ruled against Sun, who vowed to appeal, citing the importance of his case for LGBT progress in China. Currently, Article 36 of the Constitution of Cuba defines marriage as "the voluntarily established union between a man and a woman". Before the October election , LGBT activists started a public campaign with the aim of achieving same-sex marriage within the next four years.
In August , a lawyer in El Salvador filed a lawsuit before the country's Supreme Court asking for the nullification of Article 11 of the Family Code, which defines marriage as a heterosexual union. Labeling the law as discriminatory and explaining the lack of gendered terms used in Article 34 of the Constitution 's summary of marriage, the lawsuit sought to allow same-sex couples the right to wed. A second lawsuit against the same-sex marriage ban was filed on 11 November In October , the Estonian legislature, the Riigikogu , approved a civil union law open to both opposite-sex and same-sex couples.
In December , the Tallinn Circuit Court ruled that same-sex marriages concluded in another country must be recorded in the civil registry. However, they do not count as marriages for the purpose of granting spousal residency rights. In , a man filed a challenge against Georgia's same-sex marriage ban, arguing that while the Civil Code of Georgia states that marriage is explicitly between a man and a woman; the Constitution does not reference gender in its section on marriage.
In September , the Georgian Parliament approved a constitutional amendment establishing marriage as "a union between a woman and a man for the purpose of creating a family". Parliament overrode his veto on 13 October.
Same-sex marriage is not explicitly prohibited under Indian law and at least one couple has had their marriage recognised by the courts. In April , Medha Patkar of the Aam Aadmi Party stated that her party supports the legalisation of same-sex marriage. As of , a draft of a Uniform Civil Code that would legalise same-sex marriage has been proposed.
Although same-sex couples are not legally recognized currently by any form, performing a symbolic same-sex marriage is not prohibited under Indian law either. In , Israel's High Court of Justice ruled to recognize foreign same-sex marriages for the limited purpose of registration with the Administration of Border Crossings, Population and Immigration; however, this is merely for statistical purposes and grants no state-level rights.
Israel does not recognize civil marriages performed under its own jurisdiction. A bill was raised in the Knesset Israeli Parliament to rescind the High Court's ruling, but the Knesset did not advance the bill. A bill to legalize same-sex and interfaith civil marriages was defeated in the Knesset, 39—11, on 16 May In November , the National LGBT Taskforce of Israel petitioned the Supreme Court of Israel to allow same-sex marriage in the country, arguing that the refusal of the rabbinical court to recognise same-sex marriage should not prevent civil courts from performing same-sex marriages.
Opinion polls have shown that Israelis overwhelmingly support recognizing same-sex unions. The cities of Bologna , Naples and Fano began recognizing same-sex marriages from other jurisdictions in July ,   followed by Empoli , Pordenone , Udine and Trieste in September,    and Florence , Piombino , Milan and Rome in October,   and by Bagheria in November.
A January Datamonitor poll found that On 25 February , the Italian Senate passed a bill allowing civil unions with senators in favour and 73 against.
That same bill was approved by the Chamber of Deputies on 11 May with deputies in favour and 51 against. On 31 January , the Italian Supreme Court of Cassation ruled that same-sex marriages performed abroad can be fully recognized by court order, when at least one of the two spouses is a citizen of a European Union country where same-sex marriage is legal.
Same-sex marriage is not legal in Japan. Article 24 of the Japanese Constitution states that "Marriage shall be based only on the mutual consent of both sexes and it shall be maintained through mutual cooperation with the equal rights of husband and wife as a basis.
On 27 May , the Constitutional Court of Latvia overturned an administrative court decision that refused an application to register a same-sex marriage in the country. A Supreme Court press spokeswoman said that the court agrees with the administrative court that current regulations do not allow for same-sex marriages to be legally performed in Latvia.
However, the matter should have been considered in a context not of marriage, but of registering familial partnership. Furthermore, it would have been impossible to conclude whether the applicants' rights were violated or not unless their claim is accepted and reviewed in a proper manner.
In November , the Supreme Court of Nepal issued final judgment on matters related to LGBT rights, which included permitting same-sex couples to marry. Same-sex marriage and protection for sexual minorities were to be included in the new Nepalese Constitution required to be completed by 31 May In October , the Ministry of Women, Children and Social Welfare constituted a committee for the purpose of preparing a draft bill to legalize same-sex marriage.
On 17 October , a married same-sex couple filed an action of unconstitutionality seeking to recognise same-sex marriages performed abroad.
As the Supreme Court was deliberating on the two cases, the Inter-American Court of Human Rights ruled on 9 January that countries signatory to the American Convention on Human Rights must legalise same-sex marriage. On 16 January, the Panamanian Government welcomed the decision.
Vice President Isabel Saint Malo , speaking on behalf of the Government, announced that the country would fully abide by the ruling. Official notices, requiring compliance with the ruling, were sent out to various governmental departments that same day.
On 14 February , a bill legalizing same-sex marriage was introduced in the Peruvian Congress. The Inter-American Court of Human Rights ruling regarding the legalisation of same-sex marriage in countries that have ratified the American Convention on Human Rights applies to Peru.
Same-sex marriages and civil unions are currently not recognized by the state, the illegal insurgent Communist Party of the Philippines performs same-sex marriages in territories under its control since President Rodrigo Duterte supports the legalization of same-sex marriage, but feels that such a law may not pass in Congress yet as many are still influenced heavily by colonial-era Christian ideals.
He also supports same-sex civil unions, which has a higher possibility for passage and is supported by the majority of congresspersons. On 19 June , the Supreme Court of the Philippines heard oral arguments in a case seeking to legalise same-sex marriage in the Philippines.
On 5 June , the European Court of Justice ECJ ruled, in a case originating from Romania, that same-sex couples have the same residency rights as different-sex couples, when a national of an EU country gets married while resident in an EU country where same-sex marriage is legal, and the spouse is from a non-EU country. In December , the eco-socialist United Left party introduced a bill amending the definition of marriage in the Marriage and Family Relations Act to include same-sex couples.
In January , the Government expressed no opposition to the bill. In February , the bill was passed with 11 votes to 2. In March, the Assembly passed the final bill in a 51—28 vote.
On 10 March , the National Council rejected a motion to require the Assembly to vote on the bill again, in a 14—23 vote. Opponents of the bill launched a petition for a referendum and managed to collect 40, signatures.
The Parliament then voted to block the referendum with a clarification that it would be against the Slovenian Constitution to vote on matters concerning human rights. Finally, the Constitutional Court ruled against the banning of the referendum 5—4 and the referendum was held on 20 December In the referendum, In July , Kim Jho Kwang-soo and his partner, Kim Seung-Hwan, filed a lawsuit seeking legal status for their marriage after their marriage registration form was rejected by the local authorities in Seoul.
On 25 May , a South Korean district court ruled against the couple and argued that without clear legislation a same-sex union can not be recognized as a marriage. Their lawyer, Ryu Min-Hee, announced that two more same-sex couples had filed separate lawsuits in order to be allowed to wed. In December , a South Korean appeals court upheld the district court ruling.
The couple vowed to bring the case to the Supreme Court of South Korea. A same-sex marriage bill is pending in Parliament after the Green Liberal Party of Switzerland ,  introduced a constitutional initiative to legalize same-sex marriage in December , in opposition to a Christian Democrat initiative banning same-sex marriage. In March , the Swiss Federal Council released a governmental report about marriage and new rights for families.
It opens the possibility to introduce registered partnerships for different-sex couples as well as same-sex marriage for same-sex couples. This initiative would change article 14 of the Swiss Federal Constitution and aimed to put equal fiscal rights and equal social security benefits between married couples and unmarried cohabiting couples. However, the text aimed to introduce as well in the Constitution for the first time ever the definition of marriage, which would be the sole "union between a man and a woman".
In April , the Supreme Court announced it would hear a lawsuit that seeks to declare Article 44 of the Civil Code unconstitutional for outlawing same-sex marriage. In Vietnam, currently only a marriage between a man and a woman is recognized. Vietnam's Ministry of Justice began seeking advice on legalizing same-sex marriage from other governmental and non-governmental organizations in April and May , and planned to further discuss the issue at the National Assembly in Spring The Vietnamese Government abolished an administrative fine imposed on same-sex weddings in Although same-sex marriages are not permitted in Vietnam, the policy will decriminalize the relationship, habitual privileges such as household registry, property, child raising, and co-habitual partnerships are recognized.
In June , the National Assembly began formal debate on a proposal to establish legal recognition for same-sex marriage. The decree took effect on 11 November On 27 May , the National Assembly's Committee for Social Affairs removed the provision giving legal status and some rights to cohabiting same-sex couples from the Government's bill to amend the Law on Marriage and Family. On 1 January , the Law on Marriage and Family officially went into effect.
It states that while Vietnam allows same-sex weddings, it will not offer legal recognition or protection to unions between people of the same sex. The terms of employment of the staff of international organizations not commercial in most cases are not governed by the laws of the country where their offices are located. Agreements with the host country safeguard these organizations' impartiality. Despite their relative independence, few organizations recognize same-sex partnerships without condition.
The agencies of the United Nations recognize same-sex marriages if the country of citizenship of the employees in question recognizes the marriage. However, the World Bank does recognize domestic partners. Civil union, civil partnership , domestic partnership , registered partnership , unregistered partnership, and unregistered cohabitation statuses offer varying legal benefits of marriage.
On a subnational level, the Mexican state of Tlaxcala , the Dutch constituent country of Aruba and Northern Ireland in the United Kingdom allow same-sex couples to access civil unions or partnerships, but restrict marriage to couples of the opposite sex. Additionally, various cities and counties in Cambodia and Japan offer same-sex couples varying levels of benefits, which include hospital visitation rights and others.
Additionally, sixteen countries that have legalized same-sex marriage still have an alternative form of legal recognition for same-sex couples, usually available to heterosexual couples as well: Argentina , Australia , Austria , Belgium , Brazil , Colombia , Ecuador , France , Luxembourg , Malta , the Netherlands , Portugal , South Africa , Spain , the United Kingdom and Uruguay.
Female same-sex marriage is practiced among the Gikuyu , Nandi , Kamba , Kipsigis , and to a lesser extent neighboring peoples. However, this is not seen as homosexual, but is instead a way for families without sons to keep their inheritance within the family. In Nigeria, homosexual activity between men, but not between women, is illegal. In , Nigerian President Olusegun Obasanjo introduced legislation that prohibits same-sex marriages and criminalizes anyone who "performs, witnesses, aids or abets" such ceremonies.
Among the Igbo people and probably other peoples in the south of the country, there are circumstances where a marriage between women is considered appropriate, such as when a woman has no child and her husband dies, and she takes a wife to perpetuate her inheritance and family lineage. While few societies have recognized same-sex unions as marriages, the historical and anthropological record reveals a large range of attitudes towards same-sex unions ranging from praise, through full acceptance and integration, sympathetic toleration, indifference, prohibition and discrimination, to persecution and physical annihilation.
Scientific literature indicates that parents' financial, psychological and physical well-being is enhanced by marriage and that children benefit from being raised by two parents within a legally recognized union either a mixed-sex or same-sex union.
As a result, professional scientific associations have argued for same-sex marriage to be legally recognized as it will be beneficial to the children of same-sex parents or carers.
Scientific research has been generally consistent in showing that lesbian and gay parents are as fit and capable as heterosexual parents, and their children are as psychologically healthy and well-adjusted as children reared by heterosexual parents.
All states that allow same-sex marriage also allow the joint adoption of children by people of the same sex, with the exceptions of Jalisco, Nayarit and Quintana Roo in Mexico. Some additional states allow stepchild adoption by those who are in a same-sex relationship but are unmarried: Croatia , Estonia , Italy on a case-by-case basis , Slovenia and Switzerland. A gay or bisexual man has the option of surrogacy , the process in which a woman bears a child for another person through artificial insemination or carries another woman's surgically implanted fertilized egg to birth.
A lesbian or bisexual woman has the option of artificial insemination. When sex is defined legally, it may be defined by any one of several criteria: the XY sex-determination system , the type of gonads , the type of external sexual features, or the person's social identification.
In any legal jurisdiction where marriages are defined without distinction of a requirement of a male and female, these complications do not occur. In addition, some legal jurisdictions recognize a legal and official change of gender, which would allow a transgender male or female to be legally married in accordance with an adopted gender identity. In the United Kingdom, the Gender Recognition Act allows a person who has lived in their chosen gender for at least two years to receive a gender recognition certificate officially recognizing their new gender.
Such people are then free to enter or re-enter civil partnerships or marriages in accordance with their newly recognized gender identity. In Austria, a similar provision requiring transsexual people to divorce before having their legal sex marker corrected was found to be unconstitutional in In Quebec, prior to the legalization of same-sex marriage, only unmarried people could apply for legal change of gender.
With the advent of same-sex marriage, this restriction was dropped. A similar provision including sterilization also existed in Sweden, but was phased out in In the United States, transgender and intersex marriages typically run into similar complications. In the United States of America before the case of Obergefell v. Hodges , couples in same-sex marriages could only obtain a divorce in jurisdictions that recognized same-sex marriages, with some exceptions.
There are differing positions regarding the manner in which same-sex marriage has been introduced into democratic jurisdictions. A " majority rules " position holds that same-sex marriage is valid, or void and illegal, based upon whether it has been accepted by a simple majority of voters or of their elected representatives. In contrast, a civil rights view holds that the institution can be validly created through the ruling of an impartial judiciary carefully examining the questioning and finding that the right to marry regardless of the gender of the participants is guaranteed under the civil rights laws of the jurisdiction.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Marriage equality disambiguation. For the book, see Gay Marriage book. For a rundown of the history of same-sex marriage in certain countries, see a list of page beginning with "Same-sex marriage". Marriage of persons of the same sex or gender identity. Israel Mexico 1. Same-sex union legislation Same-sex union court cases Timeline of same-sex marriage Recognition of same-sex unions in Africa Recognition of same-sex unions in Asia Recognition of same-sex unions in Europe Recognition of same-sex unions in the Americas Recognition of same-sex unions in Oceania Marriage privatization Divorce of same-sex couples Domestic partnership Military policy Adoption Listings by country LGBT rights by country or territory.
Sexual orientation. Homosexuality Bisexuality pansexuality polysexuality Asexuality gray asexuality Demographics Biology Environment. Social attitudes. Prejudice , violence. Academic fields and discourse. Queer studies Lesbian feminism Queer theory Transfeminism Lavender linguistics. The examples and perspective in this section may not represent a worldwide view of the subject.
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Further information: LGBT rights opposition. See also: Public opinion of same-sex marriage in the United States and Public opinion of same-sex marriage in Australia. Indicates that same-sex marriage is legal in certain parts of the country. Indicates that the country has civil unions or registered partnerships.
Indicates that same-sex sexual activity is illegal. Main articles: History of same-sex unions , Timeline of same-sex marriage , and History of homosexuality. Main article: Timeline of same-sex marriage. Main articles: Status of same-sex marriage and Same-sex union legislation. Marriage open to same-sex couples rings: individual cases.
Legislation or binding domestic court ruling establishing same-sex marriage, but marriage is not yet provided for.
Same-sex marriage recognized with full rights when performed in certain other jurisdictions. Civil unions or domestic partnerships. Limited legal recognition registered cohabitation, legal guardianship. Local certification without legal force. Limited recognition of marriage performed in certain other jurisdictions residency rights for spouses.
Country subject to an international court ruling to recognize same-sex marriage. Same-sex unions not legally recognized. Same-sex marriage banned by secular constitution. Same-sex marriage banned by constitutionally mandated Islamic law or morality. Same-sex marriage banned for Muslims. No constitutional ban. Main article: Same-sex marriage in Argentina. Main article: Same-sex marriage in Australia.
Main article: Same-sex marriage in Austria. Main article: Same-sex marriage in Belgium. Main article: Same-sex marriage in Brazil. Other type of partnership.
Constitution limits marriage to opposite-sex couples. Same-sex sexual activity illegal, though penalties not enforced. Main article: Same-sex marriage in Canada. Main article: Same-sex marriage in Colombia. Same-sex marriage. Unregistered cohabitation. No recognition of same-sex couples. Same-sex sexual activity illegal but law not enforced. Main article: Recognition of same-sex unions in Costa Rica. Main article: Same-sex marriage in Denmark.
Civil union. Limited domestic recognition cohabitation. Limited foreign recognition residency rights. Main article: Same-sex marriage in Ecuador. Main article: Same-sex marriage in Finland. Main article: Same-sex marriage in France. Main article: Same-sex marriage in Germany. Main article: Same-sex marriage in Iceland. Main article: Same-sex marriage in the Republic of Ireland. Main article: Same-sex marriage in Luxembourg.
Main article: Same-sex marriage in Malta. Main article: Same-sex marriage in Mexico. Civil unions performed; marriage by amparo only. Marriage not performed except by amparo despite Supreme Court order. Marriage accessible by amparo or by traveling out of state. Main article: Same-sex marriage in the Netherlands.
Main article: Same-sex marriage in New Zealand. Marriage performed. Civil unions performed Easter Island. Recognition of same-sex marriages at the federal level, no territory-level recognition American Samoa. No recognition. Constitution limits marriage to opposite-sex couples Palau. Same-sex sexual activity illegal, but ban not enforced. Main article: Same-sex marriage in Norway. Main article: Same-sex marriage in Portugal. See also: De facto union in Portugal.
Main article: Same-sex marriage in South Africa. Main article: Same-sex marriage in Spain. Main article: Same-sex marriage in Sweden. Main article: Same-sex marriage in Taiwan.
Constitutional ban on same-sex marriage. Same-sex sexual activity illegal but penalties not enforced. Main article: Same-sex marriage in the United Kingdom. Main article: Same-sex marriage in the United States. Performed and recognized. Recognized when performed elsewhere. Only recognized by the state and federal governments. Main article: Same-sex marriage in Uruguay. Main article: Recognition of same-sex unions in Armenia.
Main article: Recognition of same-sex unions in Bulgaria. Main article: Recognition of same-sex unions in Chile. Main article: Recognition of same-sex unions in China. Main article: Recognition of same-sex unions in Cuba. Main article: Recognition of same-sex unions in the Czech Republic. Main article: Recognition of same-sex unions in El Salvador. Main article: Recognition of same-sex unions in Estonia. Main article: Recognition of same-sex unions in India.
Main article: Recognition of same-sex unions in Israel. Main article: Recognition of same-sex unions in Italy. Brebeuf Jesuit Preparatory School learned Thursday that the Archdiocese of Indianapolis would no longer recognize it as a Catholic school. The registrations of the marriages follow a topsy-turvy, yearslong battle to make Taiwan the first in Asia to recognize same-sex unions.
Latest Search Search. Clear this text input. N Ireland Laws on Abortion, Same-Sex Marriage, Set to Change Northern Ireland is set to decriminalize abortion and set the stage for legalization of same-sex marriages as of midnight Monday, bringing its laws in line with the rest of the U. By The Associated Press. By Ceylan Yeginsu. Northern Ireland Prepares for Momentous Abortion, Same-Sex Marriage Changes Campaigners who fought for decades to end Northern Ireland's same-sex marriage ban and restrictions on abortion gathered in Belfast on Monday to prepare for a momentous change to the laws on both at the stroke of midnight.
By Reuters. By Thomas Kaplan.
Same-sex marriage - Wikipedia
In its decision last week, the High Court of Australia cleared the way for a voluntary survey of the electorate to gauge community support for same-sex marriage.
Still, the survey will go ahead whether I prefer it to or not. It will ask us whether we support same-sex marriage. This need not be an issue that divides small-l liberals like me and realistic conservatives. Conservatism has its place. It stands as a barrier to revolutionary, perhaps irresponsible, change.
Liberalism acts as a needed social force pushing back against restrictions of individual liberty. In this case, continued denial of same-sex marriage would be illiberal, but it also goes against the best instincts of conservatives. Admittedly, some conservatives will never accept same-sex marriage because they wish to impose a traditional Christian moral code on the wider community.
Note, however, that this is more reactionary and theocratic than merely conservative. Same-sex marriage is no longer a revolutionary idea or even a novelty. Many other countries, such as the United Kingdom, the United States of America, and even the staunchly Catholic nation of Ireland, have increasingly provided for same-sex marriage, and Australia has become an outlier among Western liberal democracies.
The experience in other countries provides ample evidence that extending marriage to same-sex couples is not an irresponsible step. It can be workable and need not harm the social fabric. More fundamentally, same-sex marriage makes sense because marriage itself has changed over the past two hundred years - and especially over the past fifty years or so - along with its social meaning.
Times do change. The institution of marriage was subjected to fundamental criticism, and, to be frank, it was largely deserved. Marriage, as it was understood and practised in European Christendom and its colonial offshoots, had a dubious history. It functioned as a form of social, and especially sexual, control. In particular, it constricted the sexuality of women. More generally, unreformed marriage was a blatantly patriarchal institution.
Writing in the s, John Stuart Mill identified the marriage bond as a form of slavery for women. He was not far wrong. To play its role, marriage operated as licence for sexual experience, which was otherwise forbidden by morality if not by law. Standards of chastity were, of course, applied far more harshly to women than to men. Among the wealthier classes, marriage also operated as a tool for economic ends such as estate planning.
From the viewpoint of sixties-and-seventies radicals, there was much about marriage that was far from romantic and did not deserve to be sentimentalised. Like Mill a century earlier, they had point. Yet, marriage had already changed and softened from what it once had been.
There was a long process through the s and the first half of the twentieth century that improved the legal situation of women and altered the ideal of marriage far more toward one of companionship between equals.
Under a range of social pressures, marriage has continued in that direction. Marriage has become a kinder and far more flexible concept than it was in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, or even the s. The current ideal of marriage in Western democracies is an equal union between two companions, involving love and intimacy.
Often, it even lives up to that ideal. Same-sex marriage became increasingly more thinkable during the s and thereafter until the idea is not at all revolutionary. The impetus came, in large part, from the AIDS crisis, but the idea of marriage for same-sex couples was able to gain traction because marriage itself had been changing in an accommodating way. Broadening the scope of marriage to include same-sex couples is now a coherent and attractive proposition. Indeed, younger people who were born after the AIDS crisis and have grown up with the contemporary ideal of marriage find the exclusion of same-sex couples incomprehensible.
The changing ideal of marriage has been very significant, but it happened sufficiently gradually for Western societies to adapt around it. Provision by Australian law for same-sex marriages will give effect to a concept of marriage that meets contemporary social reality and keeps the institution relevant. Far from undermining marriage as a cherished social institution, same-sex marriage will tend to strengthen it.
It will show marriage as still socially relevant, as adaptable to the needs and values of 21st-century Australians. At the same time, the trend in Western countries toward recognition of same-sex marriage is not entirely a social defeat for conservatives. I urge them - those who have not already done so - to embrace the idea as one they can live with and even take some comfort from.
Marriage continues to maintain social prestige, and it retains deep emotional significance for most citizens, including many gay men and lesbians. Once they shed their aversion to homosexuality itself - as they increasingly have - realistic conservatives can take comfort that marriage is something that so many gay men and lesbians actually want.
Our choice as voters over the coming months is to accept a genuinely modern ideal of marriage - and thus base policy upon it - or to affirm a much older concept of marriage that younger people find irrelevant and has relatively little community support.
The latter would bring marriage into disrepute. More and more conservatives have grasped that the continuing importance of marriage is in many ways a victory for their viewpoint, and that there are other issues around which they can continue to define themselves. At this point, resistance to the idea of same-sex marriage has become somewhat absurd, even by the lights of these clued-up conservatives. Marriage itself has changed, along with its social meaning.
The trend in Western countries toward recognition of same-sex marriage is not entirely a social defeat for conservatives, and I urge them, in particular, to embrace what is happening. Edition: Available editions United Kingdom. Russell Blackford , University of Newcastle. Previous post July 13, Stoicism 5. Matthew Sharpe.