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These testers must. WJI plans to have more Thw-ls cable std this in the September issue. Septemberwire China Shanghai, China. Thank you, Greg, for your bold decision in support of quality development. He has more than 40 years of Properzi experience in the wire industry. Here, V is the velocity of the car at the datum level, or along the horizontal portion of the track. Por otra parte pueden Thw-ls cable std delgadas hojas de madera para formar una estructura modificada de madera. One day, while we were at the Cleveland wire show, we received news that the wire rod trial we had produced for cwble stay had failed our stringent testing. We would also like to extend a personal thank you to Steve Fetteroll for his efforts in organizing the trip for Tbw-ls. Development in China Free naked mature thumbs to be impressive and there is a lot of financial power as the country has very large cash reserves, while there are many concerns about U. You can change your ad preferences anytime. It likely has the cheapest of everything in it. Atenuador de volumen para linea de
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The device shown in Fig. Very informative. The results show that an increase in the compound layer thickness, with increased treatment temperature and screen hole size at the same temperature, have no effect on the layer thickness when a screen top lid is used; and when the iron plate is used simple condition the layer thickness increases with the increases in the screen hole size at the same temperature. That was the backdrop for La Farga Lacambra, a new company born on the ashes of an ancient copper foundry that launched a courageous business plan based on its experience in buying copper scrap. Due to market challenges, the company focus changed to wire spooling equipment with an emphasis on layer-wind take-ups.
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SlideShare Explore Search You. Submit Search. Successfully reported this slideshow. We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime. Manual electricista-viakon. Upcoming SlideShare. Like this presentation? Why not share! Embed Size px. Start on. Show related SlideShares at end.
WordPress Shortcode. Oscar Flores , -- Follow. Published in: Education. Full Name Comment goes here. Are you sure you want to Yes No. Ewald CF. David Ortiz. Omar Aitouabi. Show More. No Downloads. Views Total views. Actions Shares. Embeds 0 No embeds. No notes for slide. Manual electricista-viakon 1. El voltaje entre terminales es 3 veces el voltaje de fase. BANDA 4a. The current market and global conditions can indeed affect business in all areas but especially in emerging markets where infrastructure is not yet fully developed.
They may also use up capital that would otherwise. Cold rolling lines for plain and indented wire Wire rod descaling and preparation units Single or multiple cold rolling machines Spoolers Spool tilting units. Below is an alpha listing for exhibitors outside China that was provided by the organizers. Booth numbers can be found in the show program. The event will include a technical program with more than two dozen papers abstracts start on p.
The general session will feature 24 technical papers presented from am to 1 pm and from 3 pm to 5 pm on Monday, October 20, and from 9 am to 1 pm and 2 pm to 6 pm on Tuesday, October Cuauhtemoc Moctezuma, where attendees will tour the site, enjoy the view from the outside patio then have dinner inside, with music provided by Mariachi players.
Hours for the Suppliers Market tabletop displays will be held simultaneously with the technical papers. As of press time, the following companies have reserved space: American Kuhne, U. Gillies Technologies, U. Companies who want a tabletop can contact Robert Xeller at tel.
On Wednesday, October 22, attendees will go on a tour of a unique steel museum, and the city itself offers many sites of interest, from the shopping center in the Macro Plaza to the Cathedral of Monterrey.
Bus departs for Reception Tuesday, October 21, am - pm am - pm am - pm pm - pm pm - pm pm - pm. The museum, Museo Del Acero Horno, is built in and around a decommissioned blast furnace that stands ft tall, dominating the site, which itself is part of a acre industrial campus that is a public park called Parque Fundidora.
Blast Furnace No. The first phase focused on stabilizing, cleaning, and treating the existing structure. Elements that were retained, such as the furnace itself, catwalks, and much of the original steel structure, were treated for surface corrosion: Oxidization was removed and the steel was encapsulated in an epoxy-based sealant and then coated with a clear, matte polyurethane.
Though freshened up, these artifacts help preserve the A blast furnace is part of the gritty aesthetic from the Museo Del Acero Horno. The design team of AldrichPears Associates, in collaboration with museum staff, created an engaging experience that highlights the science and importance of steelmaking in Mexico. Soaring into the sky is an ironore elevator, retrofitted with an funicular-like cab, which rises feet up to a network of original exterior catwalks that weave around the furnace, its pipes and its stoves, offering visitors a stunning views.
Photographer: Roberto Ortiz. Many Fortune companies and other multi-national companies have turned to Mexico in an attempt to cut costs while maintaining U. Since the inception of the twin plant or maquila industry in the Cook s, global companies have established labor intensive assembly operations in Mexico while paying substantially less for labor, components and real estate compared to the United States and many parts of Europe. In the early s, the North American Free Trade Agreement NAFTA was established, making Mexico even more attractive for foreign direct investment by reducing and often eliminating existing tariffs, resulting in larger volumes of trade between North American countries.
For more than 30 years following the creation of the maquila industry, Mexico enjoyed an environment that was relatively free of global competition in the race to make products for consumption in North America. But in , the competitive landscape changed. Since then, manufacturing operations have grown exponentially in China, catapulting it to a globally significant player in the exportation of manufactured goods, placing it in direct competition with Mexico.
In , U. In , China surpassed Mexico in total trade with the U. A closer look at the data, however, shows that U. A recent survey by Deloitte Research indicates that China and Mexico are the top two potential destinations for foreign direct investment by U. As a result, a high level comparison of Mexico versus China is merited. Wages tend to attract the attention of most multi-national corporations. There are only 62 computers and cell phones per 1, people in China, while there are computers and cell phones per 1, people in Mexico.
Production in Mexico will also tend to favor bulkier, heavier products that are destined for consumption in North America.
As a result, China is typically better suited for high-volume, low-mix manufacturing operations. No matter the industry, U. Geographic proximity and a more than year track record of the maquiladora industry allow Mexican operations to consistently perform at U. Intellectual Property protection is another advantage of operating in Mexico. Mexico provides the option to own land and buildings, while only renting is possible in China.
Mexico boasts numerous high quality manufacturing locations. For instance the Borderplex, a metropolitan area that includes the cities of El Paso, Texas; Ciudad Juarez, Mexico; and Las Cruces, New Mexico, comprises one of the top five manufacturing employment centers in North America, with over , production workers.
Located at the midpoint of the 2,mile U. A border crossing station in El Paso, Texas. As the birthplace of the maquiladora industry in the s, Juarez employs one in five of all maquila industry workers in Mexico.
This regional manufacturing environment includes international rail service with multiple U. Some 3, people make the daily commute from El Paso to Juarez to work as plant managers, engineers and other positions, often within a minute time period. More information on the El Paso Regional Economic Development Corporation, a non-profit corporation dedicated to recruiting business and industry and military missions to the El Paso region, can be found at www. Fax No. Cancellation Policy: Refund requests must be received in writing by October 6, to receive a full refund.
No refunds after October 6, Resiak, C. Bobadilla, M. Perrot-Simonetta, and M. In Europe, highstrength screws and bolts class 8. Recently, there has been more competition from imported carbon grade parts coming from countries with low labor costs. This paper compares the potential of carbon steel grades versus boron steel grades for the production of bolts class 8. This study uses metallurgical investigations, mechanical tests, and modelling.
This paper analyzes the work of various authors to select equations which provide the highest accuracy compared with values determined experimentally. A computer program was used which allows for tensile strength calculation after patenting and drawing. This paper presents the results of investigations into the fatigue strength of wire rope zinc-coated and uncoated for three steel grades: D55, D65, and D Residual stress and some parameters of the surface texture in longitudinal and circumferential direction were also determined.
It has been proven that the hot zinc coating process lowers the fatigue strength of wire rope. This paper proposes a quantitative method for the estimation of the residual stresses, surface roughness, and material properties on the fatigue strength of the tested wire. Pilarczyk, Czestochowa University of Technology, Poland. This paper proposes a new approach to calculation of the fatigue strength of uncoated and zinc-coated wire rope.
The proposed method offers the advantage of estimating fatigue properties on the basis of other wire properties. This paper presents an easy-to-use software tool designed to simplify the planning, design, and optimization processes for fiber access networks, and save valuable time preparing network configurations that provide a desired level of reliability, availability, and fiber length.
It presents a comparative analysis of fiber network topologies—in particular, topologies such as star, ring, multilevel stars, multilevel rings, hybrid multilevel star-rings, and hybrid multilevel ring-stars. This paper reviews the benefits of gear pumps as used in the rubber industry. The pump generates pressure at higher efficiency versus the extruder or mixer, thus relieving the extruder from pressure building. Key benefits will be: reduced product temperature, consistent die pressure, and increased throughputs.
Many of the first successes with the pumps have been in the wire and cable industry, specifically power cable running in continuous vulcanization processes. Increased metal prices and reduced metal weights in conductors are pushing wire manufacturers to find alternative and more costeffective solutions to existing applications and products.
These new demands are adding complexity and challenges to wire processes and forcing equipment manufacturers to develop and refine their equipment designs to meet.
Totally committed to customer satisfaction, Conneaut combines personal attention with expertise in almost every wire and cable application. Custom orders are welcome. Prompt shipments are automatic. This paper describes the added challenges to the process and presents potential equipment solutions. This paper discusses an industrial trial in a drawing machine.
The dimension measurements in different drafts were compared to the dimensions given by the process control system.
It was found that accuracy was not satisfactory, and the wear of the dies was correlated to the wire length. This paper highlights the importance of proper coating selection and precise finished contours for wiredrawing equipment parts such as capstans i.
It describes the available types of coatings i. Emphasis is placed on the need to establish and accurately reproduce appropriate tapers along with other maintenance processes and practices. Machining is inevitable in most cases for obtaining complicated shapes, even though advanced forming technology has been developed.
Graphite particles are known to improve machinability of steels that demand high strength and high toughness as structural materials. This paper investigates the formation of graphite particles that could be accelerated by adding boron and silicon in medium-carbon steels using thermodynamic and kinetic calculations as well as dilatometric analyses.
The productivity of the single-twist machine for stranding is higher than the rigid strander. The strand quality is significantly better than that of a double-twist machine. The set-up time and setup scrap rate for this process is lower than both alternatives. Combining this performance with a stem input and the use of the Single Input Wire SIW strand technology makes this option an attractive alternative to traditional stranding processes.
This presentation documents the performance and details the merits of this alternative stranding process. Specific drawing and rolling practices are required to achieve specific mechanical properties in finished wire. In choosing the diameter of initial rolled wire, it is necessary to know initial parameters of plasticity and strength. In the absence of a generalized parameter of metal plasticity, it is not possible to make a critical examination of wire reduction routes in terms of parameters of plasticity.
This paper attempts to provide a mathematical apparatus based on a phenomenological model of fracture. Steel tire cord plants rely on PM programs to address inevitable equipment wear. Reducing PM programs in times of tight budgets jeopardizes profitability by loss of efficiency, increased operating costs, and poor in-process and final product quality.
The objective is to manage PM programs through efficiencies in labor and materials resulting in the lowest cost and the highest operating levels. The main copper.
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Most Cu-OF rod producers cast rod for their own use and just occasionally sell out small lots. Thus many wire and cable companies lack knowledge of, let alone experience with, Cu-OF. However, to realize this built-in potential, the casting process must fulfill certain important requirements. During cold drawing, resistivity curves as a function of percent reduction for bead wire samples demonstrated a two-step behavior: resistivity decreased with an increase in the reduction per pass in the initial period until a minimal value was reached, and then increased with continued drawing.
Angelica Ramos and Sergio A. Montes, Viakable, Mexico. This paper examines coldwork hardening, as it occurs within a rod breakdown machine, in detail for aluminum rod from various sources in order to explain observed differences in processability in a wire and cable facility. Studies were performed by means of surface quality, mechanical testing, and chemical and microstructural analysis.
Significant differences were found in microstructure and surface quality. The paper attempts to correlate these findings with observed behavior on the factory floor. Montes, Viakable, and C. Temperature-averaged thermal diffusivity of crosslinkable materials used as cable insulations were measured by means of heating experiments on slabs. A single value of thermal diffusivity explains the thermal response of amorphous and semi-crystalline materials, both jackets and insulations. However, crystalline materials show a thermal response that is affected by melting.
Two mathematical treatments based on a finite difference scheme were used to calculate an average diffusivity value. Selecting the proper screw to optimally handle the requirements set forth is important to maximizing performance and profitability.
Montes and J. Angelica Ramos, Viakable, Mexico. Properties of two different aluminum rod lots were studied in this paper. Differences in ultimate tensile stress were observed after wiredrawing, even though both samples complied with the standard chemical composition.
A microstructural analysis was carried out by means of optical and scanning electronic microscopy. Results showed that the aluminum rod sample with the. This paper considers the effects of plasma nitriding process parameters such as: temperature and composition of the treatment gas; and active screen set up parameters—including the type of the.
X-ray diffraction analysis showed the formation of the phases and confirmed the development of phases during the nitriding process. The results show that an increase in the compound layer thickness, with increased treatment temperature and screen hole size at the same temperature, have no effect on the layer thickness when a screen top lid is used; and when the iron plate is used simple condition the layer thickness increases with the increases in the screen hole size at the same temperature.
It was also indicated that hardness values obtained using a screen top lid are only incrementally more than those obtained with using a simple top lid. It was found that the steel top lid has little effect on the micro-hardness of samples. A mathematical model, based upon precise elongation testing of annealed copper rod and its relationship to element chemical analysis content was obtained to predict the annealability elongation of copper rod.
Check www. Experienced contributors to the wire industry know that, in broad terms, the three fundamental materials required are: rod, lubricant, and dies. It is contended that any manufacturer of a wire product must have direct performance-based systems in place for each of these three materials in order to: optimize their control of a quality product; maximize their bottom-line; and establish themselves as a leader in their given industry. Various controlled tests have been conducted to demonstrate the benefits of applying measures, controls, and purification to the lubrication aspect of the three fundamental aspects of wiredrawing.
The production of power cable incorporating double twist machines is a rapidly expanding area. It will show the requirements of construction, test, electrical installations and fulfillment of the RoHS directive for cables with thermoplastic insula-. For consistent performance, competitive pricing and reliable service, fly with HPC. Call us, today. Participants came from 38 states, including a healthy amount of drive-in traffic from wire plants in the surrounding regions of Pennsylvania, Ohio, New York, Indiana and Michigan.
The event also had an international element, with representatives from. A sampling of comments about Wire Expo from attendees who were not exhibitors or active WAI volunteers, starts on the opposite page. Comments from Wire Expo attendees It was very nice to get back to the show after many years of absence. I have always enjoyed the interaction and camaraderie of the show attendees. It is also a very good way of seeing what is happening in the industry around the world, providing you make the effort to meet with others.
Terry Bartel, Charter Steel. It was very important to meet suppliers and success the steel market. The show was OK but everyone in the steel industry was there. Mills are sold out, material is on allocation and rehashing tough market conditions was not pleasant.
It provided the opportunity to meet with people who you have dealt with for years and share ideas and also meet new wire business personnel. Steve Bungo, Delphi Packard. Very informative regarding new products and machinery and as always it is great to meet people face to face when in conversation. It is sad to watch the continuing decline of U. I walked the entire show in an hour, saw everyone I needed to see and flew back to New York.
Is it harder and harder for the small manufacturer to find parts, affordable manufacturing alternatives and resources to compete against Asian competitors. James Larkin, Reinforcing Supply. Very informative. Work booths were very well done. Due to the steel markets globally, this is one way to stay in touch and also witness the new technology regarding equipment relating to operational efficiencies.
Wayne Scott, Emerson. Well thought out, well organized, good venue, well advertised. Derek Saxby, Ivaco Rolling Mills. Wire Expo was very informative and educational. Paul Duval, Venus Stainless. Just seems the off-year shows have less value and participation as the main. George Yura, Bridon American Corp. I was surprised that there were not as many vendors as there used to be.
It was good to get away and speak with people and see presentations on different ways of doing things. It helps me to have a fresh look at things.
The show is more orientated towards ferrous people. I am a non-ferrous person. Overall, the show was just what I was looking for, with the exception of no actual wiredrawing machine companies being represented. Terry Battaglia, Buffalo Wire Works. As a wire manufacturer, I welcome the chance to learn from my peers on key subjects including raw material sourcing, energy management, and productivity advancements as well as lean and green manufacturing.
It featured an excellent presentation by Mark A. WJI plans to have more on this in the September issue. As a first-time attendee, I would have thought that there would have been better participation by machine manufacturers.
I realize that this is an off-year show, but even just having a booth to discuss with representatives would have been helpful. Gary Morykwas, Brush Wellman. While the show was relatively small, it gave us a great opportunity to visit with other vendors and potential vendors of interest.
This opportunity is of significant value since it is not always cost effective for all U. Dennis Olexiuk, Leoni Eloxiuk Limited. Bhaskar Yalamanchili. Accompanied by his wife, Radha, and son, Rajeev, and a table of co-workers and colleagues, he explained why the award meant so much to him.
For that and more, turn to p. The other Donnellan winner was the late Barry Loudon, the former president of the Australasian Wire Industry Association, who received the award posthumously. Accepting the award on his behalf were his three daughters, Catherine, Alexandra and Kirrilee.
The speech by Catherine was a moving tribute, one that resulted in a standing ovation from the crowd. During the awards ceremony, the WAI honored its new year and Life members as well as award-winning authors. Those include: Ferrous Division: the Allan B. Acceptance speech a most fitting tribute Below are the remarks made by Catherine Loudon, 22, during the awards ceremony at Wire Expo With her on the stage were sisters Alexandra, 20, and Kirrilee, 18, all of whom came from Australia to accept the Donnellan Memorial Award on behalf of their late father, Barry Loudon, the former president of the Australasian Wire Industry Association.
On behalf of my dad, my sisters and my family I would like to thank you for this prestigious award. At home we have so many photos of my dad making speeches at conferences just like this that it feels strange to be up here in his place but it is also a real honor. At his funeral Malcolm Michael described our dad as a champion of the wire industry and this award is testament to that.
Barry put so much effort into this industry and still. The awards ceremony audience gave her a standing ovation. It is only since he passed away and we have heard comments from his friends and colleagues that we have come to realize the commitment and love he had for what he did. He was incredibly dedicated to his work and went to extraordinary lengths to push the industry forward.
We would like to offer our congratulations to Mr. Properzi who, We were so excited to knowing the amount hear about this award of work our dad put and to be able to be in, must have shown the same dedication. For us this is a once in a lifetime opportunity and it has been an absolutely unforgettable experience. We were so excited to hear about this award and to be able to be here to accept it, yet we are sad that dad never knew about it.
Malcolm was a good friend to dad and has done such a wonderful job of taking on the role of director secretary of the AWIA after his passing. We would also like to extend a personal thank you to Steve Fetteroll for his efforts in organizing the trip for us.
He truly went above and beyond to make sure everything ran as smoothly as possible for us. Finally, to dad, we love you and miss you and we are so proud of you. Thank you. Introducing the new definitive industry resource for ferrous wire—edited by Dr. Robert M. Shemenski—and offered exclusively through WAI. Kamatics was willing to bend its products over backwards to show the value of its replacement bows. Bridon International Ltd.
Kantz at the Esteves Group booth and Neil Lowdon at the Condat Corporation booth made presentations that drew dozens of attendees. Some of the largest crowds were for the three Production Solutions presentations made on the show floor, but the technical papers continued to be the anchor, with some two dozen papers presented on Tuesday and Wednesday. The event was held late Sunday afternoon under very hot, very humid conditions, with the winner Motohiko Urabe, age 22, a student at the Department of Mechanical Engineering, School of.
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Kazanuri Yoshida and Prof. Motoo Asakawa. His win was especially impressive as he and fellow runner Yuichi Tanaka had just completed their long flight to the U.
A total of 17 runners competed and all finished. It also provided an exceptional view of the massive cable structures used in the Convention Center itself. It was a great evening for baseball, with pleasant weather and five home runs although the home team Pirates, just one strike away from a win, gave up two runs in the ninth inning and lost.
And, of course, many attendees and guests found their own destinations to enjoy in Pittsburgh. Wire Expo is held biennially for the wire and cable manufacturing industry. Initiated in in Boston, Wire Expo offers global industry information in a regional setting and a timely meeting point for suppliers, manufacturers, buyers, researchers, and industry pioneers from around the globe. The date and location for Wire Expo will be announced later this year.
Hand-held, bench and trolleymounted models and freestanding rod welders available with capacities from. My professional career and experiences in the wire industry The below Mordica Lecture, presented at Wire Expo , traces lessons learned and experiences gained by the recipient, including the value of setting and following through on goals, strong team work and management support. By Dr. Good morning ladies and gentleman.
It is a great pleasure and honor to be here after receiving the Mordica Memorial Award and I want to give something back to you and the Wire Association. What I would like to do is review some basics of what I was able to achieve in this profession and how it was possible. First of all, you have to have a good education, and I am very fortunate to have parents who supported me all the way through my educational career. I would not be here today giving this lecture without having had their strong support.
Next, after entering the work force, you have to decide whether you will try to do everything yourself or choose to be a team player. I chose the latter and have been fortunate to have worked with good people throughout my entire international career.
I was also very blessed to have had. One of my earliest mentors was Dr. Rau, who guided me while I was starting to climb the ladder. Without having to stretch as a person to learn and meet his initial stringent quality requirements, I would not be here today. When I moved from one side of the globe to the other, I was very fortunate to work for a second superb mentor, Dr.
Alan Gorton, chief metallurgist for Atlantic Steel Company in Atlanta, Georgia, who showed me the path to succeed in an entirely different world. What did I learn from these fine gentlemen? One thing is that you have to have goals: daily, weekly, monthly, yearly and lifelong.
I can tell you that, without these, your potential will not be fully developed. It is easy to write down the goals but if you do not follow through and execute them, you will never achieve to your full potential. Success or. One of my friends and another close mentor, Peter Power, asked me how was I able to coauthor 26 technical papers apart from the normal day-to-day firefighting.
I said to Pete, it is all vision, determination and execution. You will always find the time if you know what you really want to achieve, and plan accordingly. I am very grateful that the company permitted me to do what I needed to do for my future growth. Last, but not least, I want to acknowledge the tremendous impact that the Wire Association has made.
The conventions, committees, seminars, literature and friendships have all contributed immeasurably to the advancement of my career. I am very grateful for all that the WAI has done for me. I would also like to stress one thing I have learned over the years in this industry: you need to have a passion for what you do, for that is what leads to results. In my case, it led to recognition in the form of this Mordica Award.
At this point, I would like to review some of the quality and metallurgical contributions that my teams and I have made to the wire rod industry. Some industrial experiences and contributions Resistivity measurements in telephone wire. During my first internship job in India, at Mukand Iron and Steel Company, I was asked to develop a low-carbon grade of steel to meet the restricted resistivity requirements for telephone wire.
With the help of Dr. Rau and my colleagues,. Finally, we were successful in meeting all requirements specified by the leading International Standards governing this grade of wire. Introduction of oxygen probe to assist deoxidation practice.
While producing steel by the newly installed continuous casting process at Atlantic Steel, we encountered a serious problem with under-deoxidation that resulted in pinholes and blow holes in the billets as shown in Fig. With the help of Electro-Nite, we were able to measure the dissolved oxygen and thus optimize our deoxidation practice to produce the defect-free, fully deoxidized steel as shown in Fig. This work, coupled with help from Dr. Gorton and the college facilities, enabled me to complete the thesis requirement for my M.
This thesis formed the basis for the measurement of dissolved oxygen in liquid steel to assure complete deoxidation that is still being used. One interesting investigation using this modern metallurgical tool led to the conclusion that surface sanding striations were responsible for initiating the stress raiser cracks that caused the forming fractures.
See Fig. The SEM did just that. Boron in low carbon patent. One of our sales managers, Bill Swift, sent a memo asking if we could help reduce the breakage that was occurring during forming of coat hangers such as the example shown in Fig.
This led to the concept of controlling the boron-to-nitrogen ratio in order to reduce the work hardening effect. Our team, consisting of Thad Boudreaux, Frank Wisniewski and Pete Power, designed chemistry that reduced the work hardening during drawing as well as the subsequent aging.
At the time, we faced some objections from the melt shop management who were reluctant to use boron due to its. However, we were able to convince management of the potential value of trying this and obtained permission to produce just one heat. The results were extremely interesting!
Steve Filips, our plant manager at that time, agreed to proceed with making more heats in order to satisfy our quality goals. This work eventually led to filing and acceptance of a U. It was our understanding of the fundamental metallurgical principles involved that made it possible to solve this problem. The nitrogen solute atoms increase resistance to plastic deformation during wiredrawing Fig. This adds to the amount of strain hardening by increasing the dislocation density that results from tangling Fig.
Boron combines with the nitrogen to form BN inclusions Fig. Concurrently, this work also served to satisfy the requirements for my thesis and doctoral degree obtained from Lamar University in The improvement in ductility resulting from the boron addition has become well recognized, and is now a normal practice in our industry. Rod coil rust guide. Our group thought this to be very subjective, and that we needed a more scientific measurement of the degree of rusting required.
With this concept we developed a Rust Guide of photographs showing various rust levels on the rod coil see Appendix 1. This tool is now being utilized regularly by many of our customers. Mechanical damage. After making good quality steel wire rod, if proper care is not taken, it is very easy to damage its surface Fig.
It is also very common to produce surface martensite in high-carbon grades when a coil is scraped mechanically Fig. Extreme care, therefore, is needed to protect the surface in order to avoid costly mistakes and increase the cost of quality.
Chevron cracking analysis. Chevron cracking is an all too common problem for wire drawers. In our experience it was mainly due to the segregation of elements at the center of the continuously cast high-carbon billets. Our groups worked on this problem for many years to improve billet casting practices that were designed to minimize segregation.
Much work was also done with the controlled cooling practices in the rod mill in order to minimize the formation of hard, non-deformable microstructures at the centerline.
Since there are many causes for this phenomenon, we finally developed a Cause Analysis Chart as shown in Appendix 2, to guide us through the identification of the various causes for chevron cracking. Utilizing this technique, along with identifying some of the metallurgical phenomena involved, we were able to solve one of our. Publication of this case, which highlighted the steelmaking practices used to control nitrogen, ultimately led us to winning the WAI Silver Certificate Award for best ferrous paper in Tensile gain rate reduction.
In response to the WAI theme. During this period, we needed much support from plant management and were fortunate to get that from our plant manager John Harrell, to whom I owe much thanks. Having reached this plateau, the next challenge was to develop rod for cable stay wire. One day, while we were at the Cleveland wire show, we received news that the wire rod trial we had produced for cable stay had failed our stringent testing.
This message was passed on to our then-plant manager, Greg Bott, who quickly responded and gave directions to make another trial heat in the attempt to meet customer requirements. You have to have a quality leader at the top who believes in quality and supports your corrective action decisions. Well, I can proudly report that this support enabled us to produce the required cable stay quality rod. Our objective was to assist wire drawers and rod producers to combine their practices for optimum results.
This work was summarized in chart form for easy reference as in Appendix 3. Cable stay wire. We required several years to overcome. The Charleston cable stay bridge, whose early patrons include the Mordica Memorial Award winner. I am very pleased to say I drove over that bridge with great pride. Thank you, Greg, for your bold decision in support of quality development. Mentoring Over the years we have had several rewarding experiences in mentoring. I am particularly proud to have been able to succeed in having two department members — Thad Boudreaux and Huey Hampton — work for several years during their spare time in order to receive their degrees from Lamar University and Lamar Institute of Technology some 25 years after high school graduation.
They are now working for us at much higher level jobs. Planning for the future by mentoring associates and professionals new to the industry is a powerful way to contribute to the success of both your organization and the individuals involved. Two of these projects have resulted in WAI papers that we co-authored with the students.
While preparing the work for publication does add significant work, I can truthfully say that this has greatly contributed to the learning and professionalism of all involved. This, in turn, prepared us all to meet even greater challenges for our company. There are many other ways in which to contribute to the Wire Association.
There are currently 13 WAI committees whose work depends on members with expertise to volunteer the necessary time and effort for action. There are ongoing. Having served on several of these committees, I can say from experience that they have all greatly helped me in return. Some Lessons Learned Continuous improvement is necessary. Considering the standard life-cycle graph as shown in Fig. So, always think at the bottom and keep aiming for the top.
Seek excellence and you will not only achieve your goals but also be able to make valuable and necessary contributions to your companies and to our Wire Association International. Working as a team. Being part of a group that competently, objectively works together definitely leads synergistically to the achievement of better results than any individual could ever do alone.
In bringing technical service to the customer, it is paramount to have strong support from sales. Long term success requires this kind of thinking so that process improvements can be made in order to achieve the necessary quality requirements at least cost and maximum yield.
Achieving product quality should not be a needless expense. I learned this through one of our strongly supportive customers. When a customer is pushing for extreme higher quality levels at your expense, you should challenge that customer to prove that it is actually necessary to have such stringent quality requirements for that particular end use. Upper management support is a must. It is necessary that you win the support of upper management in order to achieve your quality goals. This requires credibility, objectivity, and an ongoing list of achievements.
Mentoring is valuable. Be alert for opportunities to become actively involved in supporting the career development of others. Participation in industry and professional organizations. This is another valuable means to enhance the careers of all who become actively involved. Ongoing education. Always seek to improve your knowledge through continuing education and industry sponsored seminars. Advancement of technology. Recognize and implement opportunities for the advancement of technology in your work environment.
In Conclusion By reviewing my experiences, I hope that I have revealed how diversified and stimulating our wire industry is, and really can be, for you. We are all very fortunate to be working in such an industry. It has tremendous scope for challenging all who are involved with it; most of its problems are solvable without requiring a genius; the opportunities to contribute are many, and the rewards from your efforts can be great.
Remember, John Mordica was just as busy as we all are, but he made the time to establish, and nurture the Wire Association, which has become an invaluable asset to our industry and all our careers. As you can see from this review, strong team work and management support is necessary in order to achieve your goals. Therefore, I want to thank, and am most grateful for, all the help I have received from those mentioned above as well as from all those too numerous to mention here. I want to thank Marc Murray for his referencing support in preparing this lecture.
My sincere thanks also go to Lorna Warner for her excellent help in drafting and preparing this presentation as well as for other reports and publications she has done over the years. Last, but not least, I am extremely grateful to my family, Radha, Ranjit and Rajeev, without whose support and sacrifices, I could not have achieved this award.
He holds advanced degrees that include a Ph. He has published 26 technical papers, coauthoring a award-winner, and holds a patent in producing low carbon wire rod with boron. A new Universal Horizontal Impact Tester UHIT system designed to measure flow stress in materials has been found to be very useful in understanding and development of steels for cold heading processes.
The apparatus has two embodiments: the collision embodiment and the sweep embodiment. In the collision embodiment, the UHIT is a two-car impact tester used for: constitutive modeling of material flow stress; determination of material damage constants; and physical simulation of upsetting in the cold heading process.
Two cars mounted on rollers are raised to the desired height at the ends of oppositely inclined rails, and are latched in the armed position.
Upon release, the cars are propelled by gravity down the rails. In this embodiment, the roller flanges of both cars are on the inside of the rails and the cars collide in the horizontal portion of the track. Kinetic energy stored in the cars is dissipated in a specimen carried by one of the cars. When flat dies are used, as in constitutive modeling of flow stress, the specimen falls into a calorimeter following the recoil of the cars.
This enables the determination of the total energy absorbed by the specimen and hence the quasiadiabatic temperature attained by the specimen. In the sweep embodiment, the UHIT is a two-car fracture specimen tester. It may be used for: Charpy specimen impact energy determination; Izod specimen impact energy determination; fastener head impact testing; tensile specimen impact testing; and skelp V-Notch specimen impact testing.
The wide rails of the UHIT allow the roller flanges of one. In the sweep embodiment, the design is such that cars can sweep by one another without touching. However, by inserting a fracture specimen in one car, and mounting a striker on the other car, the kinetic energy of the cars can be partly dissipated into the fracture specimen. The fracture energy is determined from the initial and final heights of the car centroids, taking into consideration parasitic losses.
The device shown in Fig. The first four sweep embodiments are useful in the study of cold heading of long products, while the fifth pertains to testing flat products, for example, determining the ductile-to-brittle transition temperature of skelp products. The objective of this paper is to present the unique features of the UHIT that overcome difficulties that were encountered in the original cold heading work at IRM1 carried out on a Vertical Drop Weight Tester In the horizontal application of impact energy, the extensive foundation work found in conventional vertical drop weight impact testers and pendulum machines is not required.
This allows the UHIT in both its collision and sweep embodiments to be implemented on the same frame, mounted in a mobile laboratory that may be hauled from location to location.
In vertical drop-weight testers, a collision occurs between a striker and a fixed specimen. These testers must.
Some designs use shock absorbers that repel the crosshead after the test specimen fractures and catch the striker. The drop-weight system must be securely bolted to a rigid foundation to permit maximum utilization of these design features and prevent damage to critical components. The functions of the foundation are firstly, to provide a rigid mass through which the shock is absorbed and dissipated into the earth, and secondly, to provide a flat, level surface to which the drop-weight system can be affixed.
If a rigid foundation is not provided, alterations in the test data, premature failure of the equipment and excessive vibration causing spring action can occur. Guidelines are provided by manufacturers of drop-weight testers to assist in the installation of their equipment.
The mass of a rigid foundation must be 10 times greater than the crosshead mass impacting the test specimen and stop blocks. For example, a crosshead mass of kg calls for a foundation of 10, kg, which if constructed of steel-reinforced concrete equates to a block 2 m wide, 2m deep and 1.
The static load-bearing capacity of the soil for the location of each impact tester must be determined by a soil engineer, taking into consideration that the dynamic impact loads should not exceed the static load of the soil. Moreover, the foundation should have sufficient contact. Manufacturers generally recommend that the slab be isolated from the surrounding floor to alleviate any potential vibration to equipment located in close proximity.
In particular, it is very important that the drop-weight system be carefully secured to a steel mounting plate built into the foundation. The recommended procedure is to carefully level the mounting plate and use a very thin layer of epoxy filler between the mounting plate and drop-weight system base plate to secure a good integral fit between these two components. The crosshead must drop in a vertical path and thereby minimize friction caused by the interaction with the guide columns. Pendulum impact testers, where a striker impacts a fixed specimen and sweeps by, are analogous to the sweep embodiment of the UHIT.
Again, foundations for pendulum impact testers must be carefully designed or the following problems can arise: alterations in the test data; premature failure of equipment; and excessive vibration causing spring action. A typical foundation for a commercially available J pendulum impact tester3 consists of a block 1. The machine is fixed on a 1. A block of steel of these dimensions weighs kg. As yet another example, Charpy5 describes a pendulum tester with a 50 kg striker plate.
The anvil-bed weighs kg. It is driven into the ground and cemented. It can now be appreciated that the foundation issues which are of tremendous concern in Vertical Drop Weight Testers are virtually non-existent in a UHIT.
So, one set of concerns has been exchanged for another. However, the authors believe that the parasitic losses are much better circumscribed in the case of the UHIT. Here, g is the gravitational constant, M is the mass of the object a UHIT car in this case , Hinitial is the initial height of the car centroid, and Hdatum is the datum height, or height of the car centroid along the horizontal portion of the track.
The datum height is normally taken as zero. Here, V is the velocity of the car at the datum level, or along the horizontal portion of the track. The cars are set at equal heights to minimize residual momentum. Again the cars are set at equal height, and are allotted equal mass, to minimize residual momentum. An overwhelming fraction of the energy E is delivered to the specimen. The energy applied to the specimen can be calculated, net of energy dissipated in friction, by allowing one car to travel, unimpeded, down one incline and up the other.
Energy is also stored as elastic energy in the cars, dies, and specimen during impact, and thence dissipated in friction as the cars undergo a minor rebound or bounce. Here, Hbounce is the height of the centroid of the car above the datum on the horizontal segment of track at the apogee of the bouncing car, and Sbounce is the distance. In a properly constructed horizontal impact tester, the cars are evenly matched, making it sufficient to determine EF, ER and EB for one car only.
Physical simulation of the cold heading process Cold heading is a cold forging process in which the force developed by a heading tool is employed to displace metal to form a section of different contour or of a different cross section. The process is widely used to produce a variety of small and medium sized hardware items, for example bolts, nuts and rivets. Although rules of thumb are still used in industry to successfully produce cold-headed parts, the imperatives of competition are bringing companies to employ physical and mathematical simulations of the process to arrive at optimal forging sequences.
The heat of deformation ignites an explosive charge at the bottom of the die pocket, thereby propelling the specimen into a calorimeter set between the rails.
This technique allows a straightforward calculation of the amount of energy absorbed by the specimen. Mathematical simulations using FEM require inputs such as data on friction between die and work piece, fracture criteria constants, and flow stress relationships to be applied successfully.
It is an objective of the UHIT work at IRM to offer cold heading customers a means of rapidly and accurately generating this information. A cold heading specimen is mounted in a die pocket cavity. The cars are raised to the desired height, latched in the armed position and then released.
During the collision event, the kinetic energy of the cars is dissipated in the specimen. The specimen takes on the appearance, Fig. Apart from the portion extending into the die pocket, the cylinder diameter originally was 22 mm in diameter by 28 mm high. The material is low carbon,. Specimens are repeatedly tested at increasing energy input until incipient cracking appears on the physical specimen, generally at the equatorial surface.
FEM modeling of the simulated part is then used to calculate a material damage constant which is a property of the tested material. Modeling of material flow stress The compression test is the preferred method for determining flow stress data for materials at various temperatures, strains and strain rates. It is especially useful in view of its inherent capability for applying large strains, such as those experienced in most bulk metal forming processes.
Other tests used for determining flow stress are the tensile test and the torsion test. Tensile tests are of limited use in bulk metal forming processes, because the results are valid only for relatively small amounts of plastic strain.
The torsion test is typically used for finding flow stress data at higher true strains between 2 and 4, but the deformation is by definition non-homogeneous. Various types of machines can be used to perform a compression test. The hydraulic press can keep the strain rate constant by controlling the speed versus stroke of the press ram such that ram-velocity is a constant. In the mechanical press, with its regular crank or eccentric cam, the strain rate is not constant during the press stroke so average values of strain rate must be used.
The latter two machines generally have a lower strain rate capability, and not within the range experienced in cold forging applications. The cam plastometer is the classic method of determining the flow stress. A ram rapidly strikes a specimen mounted on a platen.
A hydraulic motor and a flywheel rotate a cam; in turn, a cam follower governs the motion of the ram to deform the specimen a given stroke distance. The cam is specifically configured to drive the ram at a constant strain rate. The main drawback with this machine is the compliance or bedding-in of the drive train components. The application of correction factors throws doubt on the data validity. In its collision embodiment, the Universal Horizontal Impact Tester can be used to obtain material flow stress data and to establish constitutive models of material flow stress.
The procedure is straightforward. A cylindrical specimen is lightly attached by means of paraffin or similar lubricant to the finely polished platen of a die mounted on one car. The specimen must be upset without barreling to maintain a state of uniform stress.
Barreling can be prevented or at least minimized by employing several techniques, two of which are described below. In one technique, maintaining adequate lubrication between the polished platens and the specimen during compression minimizes barreling.
In this case, two types of cylindrical specimens are generally used: Spiral groove specimens have spiral grooves machined at both ends to a depth of about 0. The grooves or recesses are filled with lubricant, and can provide nearly frictionless and uniform metal flow. For both types of specimens, the preferred height to diameter ratio is 1.
Siebel and Pomp7 developed another technique. They suggested that a uniform distribution of stress be obtained by compressing the cylindrical test specimen, not between two plane platens, but between two cones. The generatrix of a cone makes an angle with the plane of compression, equal to the angle of friction.
The resultant stress in the compression surfaces of the two cones is then parallel to the direction of compression. This favors the development of a pure axial compressive stress in the test specimen. Both techniques can be readily implemented using the UHIT operating in the collision mode. In the constitutive modeling of flow stress, an accelerometer attached to one of the cars is used to obtain the deceleration as a function of time.
The cable attached to such an device mounted at the back of a car is visible in Fig. An additional extremely important parameter in the establishment of flow stress, namely the temperature history of the specimen, can be determined using the UHIT. Indeed, it exploits the slight rebound after impact to release the compression specimen from the grip of the platens. The specimen then drops and funnels into a calorimeter, located between the rails.
The final specimen temperature, Tfinal, can thus be calculated.
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